The genome forms specific three-dimensional contacts in response to cellular or environmental conditions. However, it remains largely unknown which proteins specify and mediate such contacts. Here we describe an assay, MAP-C (Mutation Analysis in Pools by Chromosome conformation capture), that simultaneously characterizes the effects of hundreds of cis or trans-acting mutations on a chromosomal contact. Using MAP-C, we show that inducible interchromosomal pairing between HAS1pr-TDA1pr alleles in saturated cultures of Saccharomyces yeast is mediated by three transcription factors, Leu3, Sdd4 (Ypr022c), and Rgt1. The coincident, combined binding of all three factors is strongest at the HAS1pr-TDA1pr locus and is also specific to saturated conditions. We applied MAP-C to further explore the biochemical mechanism of these contacts, and find they require the structured regulatory domain of Rgt1, but no known interaction partners of Rgt1. Altogether, our results demonstrate MAP-C as a powerful method for dissecting the mechanistic basis of chromosome conformation.
- Jay Shendure
- Seungsoo Kim
- Jay Shendure
- Maitreya J Dunham
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Jeannie T Lee, Massachusetts General Hospital, United States
© 2019, Kim et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Imaging experiments reveal the complex and dynamic nature of the transcriptional hubs associated with Notch signaling.
African trypanosomes evade host immune clearance by antigenic variation, causing persistent infections in humans and animals. These parasites express a homogeneous surface coat of variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs). They transcribe one out of hundreds of VSG genes at a time from telomeric expression sites (ESs) and periodically change the VSG expressed by transcriptional switching or recombination. The mechanisms underlying the control of VSG switching and its developmental silencing remain elusive. We report that telomeric ES activation and silencing entail an on/off genetic switch controlled by a nuclear phosphoinositide signaling system. This system includes a nuclear phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphatase (PIP5Pase), its substrate PI(3,4,5)P3, and the repressor-activator protein 1 (RAP1). RAP1 binds to ES sequences flanking VSG genes via its DNA binding domains and represses VSG transcription. In contrast, PI(3,4,5)P3 binds to the N-terminus of RAP1 and controls its DNA binding activity. Transient inactivation of PIP5Pase results in the accumulation of nuclear PI(3,4,5)P3, which binds RAP1 and displaces it from ESs, activating transcription of silent ESs and VSG switching. The system is also required for the developmental silencing of VSG genes. The data provides a mechanism controlling reversible telomere silencing essential for the periodic switching in VSG expression and its developmental regulation.