Sarcoidosis is a complex systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of activated macrophages and Th1/Th17 effector cells. Data mining of our RNA-Seq analysis of CD14+ monocytes showed enrichment for metabolic and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathways in sarcoidosis. Further investigation revealed that sarcoidosis macrophages and monocytes exhibit higher protein levels for HIF-α isoforms, HIF-1β, and their transcriptional co-activator p300 as well as glucose transporter 1 (Glut1). In situ hybridization of sarcoidosis granulomatous lung tissues showed abundance of HIF-1α in the center of granulomas. The abundance of HIF isoforms was mechanistically linked to elevated IL-1β and IL-17 since targeted down regulation of HIF-1α via short interfering RNA or a HIF-1α inhibitor decreased their production. Pharmacological intervention using chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor, decreased lysosomal associated protein 2 (LAMP2) and HIF-1α levels and modified cytokine production. These data suggest that increased activity of HIF-α isoforms regulate Th1/Th17 mediated inflammation in sarcoidosis.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript.
- Lobelia Samavati
- Lobelia Samavati
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Human subjects: The Committee for Investigations Involving Human Subjects at Wayne State University approved the protocol for obtaining alveolar macrophages by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood by phlebotomy from control subjects and patients with sarcoidosis.The IRB number for this study is 055208MP4E. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects enrolled for the study.
- Jos WM van der Meer, Radboud University Medical Centre, Netherlands
© 2019, Talreja et al.
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