1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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Discrete viral E2 lysine residues and scavenger receptor MARCO are required for clearance of circulating alphaviruses

  1. Kathryn S Carpentier
  2. Bennett J Davenport
  3. Kelsey C Haist
  4. Mary K McCarthy
  5. Nicholas A May
  6. Alexis Robison
  7. Claudia Ruckert
  8. Gregory D Ebel
  9. Thomas E Morrison  Is a corresponding author
  1. University of Colorado School of Medicine, United States
  2. Colorado State University, United States
Research Article
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Cite this article as: eLife 2019;8:e49163 doi: 10.7554/eLife.49163

Abstract

The magnitude and duration of vertebrate viremia is a critical determinant of arbovirus transmission, geographic spread, and disease severity. We find that multiple alphaviruses, including chikungunya (CHIKV), Ross River (RRV), and o'nyong 'nyong (ONNV) viruses, are cleared from the circulation of mice by liver Kupffer cells, impeding viral dissemination. Clearance from the circulation was independent of natural antibodies or complement factor C3, and instead relied on scavenger receptor SR-A6 (MARCO). Remarkably, lysine to arginine substitutions at distinct residues within the E2 glycoproteins of CHIKV and ONNV (E2 K200R) as well as RRV (E2 K251R) allowed for escape from clearance and enhanced viremia and dissemination. Mutational analysis revealed that viral clearance from the circulation is strictly dependent on the presence of lysine at these positions. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized innate immune pathway that controls alphavirus viremia and dissemination in vertebrate hosts, ultimately influencing disease severity and likely transmission efficiency.

Article and author information

Author details

  1. Kathryn S Carpentier

    Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  2. Bennett J Davenport

    Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  3. Kelsey C Haist

    Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  4. Mary K McCarthy

    Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  5. Nicholas A May

    Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  6. Alexis Robison

    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  7. Claudia Ruckert

    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  8. Gregory D Ebel

    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  9. Thomas E Morrison

    Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, United States
    For correspondence
    thomas.morrison@ucdenver.edu
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0002-1811-2938

Funding

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (R01 AI123348)

  • Thomas E Morrison

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (F32 AI140567)

  • Kathryn S Carpentier

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (T32 AI007405)

  • Kathryn S Carpentier

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.

Ethics

Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (#00026) of the University of Colorado School of Medicine (Assurance Number A3269-01). Experimental animals were humanely euthanized at defined endpoints by exposure to isoflurane vapors followed by thoracotomy.

Reviewing Editor

  1. John W Schoggins, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, United States

Publication history

  1. Received: June 7, 2019
  2. Accepted: October 4, 2019
  3. Accepted Manuscript published: October 9, 2019 (version 1)

Copyright

© 2019, Carpentier et al.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

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