ERK3 is a ubiquitously expressed member of the atypical mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the physiological significance of its short half-life remains unclear. By employing gastrointestinal 3D organoids, we detect that ERK3 protein levels steadily decrease during epithelial differentiation. ERK3 is not required for 3D growth of human gastric epithelium. However, ERK3 is stabilized and activated in tumourigenic cells, but deteriorates over time in primary cells in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ERK3 is necessary for production of several cellular factors including interleukin-8 (IL-8), in both, normal and tumourigenic cells. Particularly, ERK3 is critical for AP-1 signaling through its interaction and regulation of c-Jun protein. The secretome of ERK3 deficient cells is defective in chemotaxis of neutrophils and monocytes both in vitro and in vivo. Further, knockdown of ERK3 reduces metastatic potential of invasive breast cancer cells. We unveil an ERK3-mediated regulation of IL-8 and epithelial secretome for chemotaxis.
- Krishnaraj Rajalingam
- Katarzyna Bogucka
- Krishnaraj Rajalingam
- Malvika Pompaiah
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: The animalexperiment was performed under the permission (G16-1-026) of the National Investigation Office Rheinland-Pfalz and conducted according to the German Animal Protection Law
Human subjects: Tissue samples employed are obtained from the biobank of the university medical center. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients, and the study was approved by the ethical committee at the University Medical Center of the JGU Mainz (approval # 837.100.16 (10419).
- Yuting Ma, Suzhou Institute of Systems Medicine, China
© 2020, Bogucka et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
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Heat shock induces a conserved transcriptional program regulated by heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) in eukaryotic cells. Activation of this heat shock response is triggered by heat-induced misfolding of newly synthesized polypeptides, and so has been thought to depend on ongoing protein synthesis. Here, using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we report the discovery that Hsf1 can be robustly activated when protein synthesis is inhibited, so long as cells undergo cytosolic acidification. Heat shock has long been known to cause transient intracellular acidification which, for reasons which have remained unclear, is associated with increased stress resistance in eukaryotes. We demonstrate that acidification is required for heat shock response induction in translationally inhibited cells, and specifically affects Hsf1 activation. Physiological heat-triggered acidification also increases population fitness and promotes cell cycle reentry following heat shock. Our results uncover a previously unknown adaptive dimension of the well-studied eukaryotic heat shock response.
How cells adjust nutrient transport across their membranes is incompletely understood. Previously, we have shown that S. cerevisiae broadly re-configures the nutrient transporters at the plasma membrane in response to amino acid availability, through endocytosis of sugar- and amino acid transporters (AATs) (Müller et al., 2015). A genome-wide screen now revealed that the selective endocytosis of four AATs during starvation required the α-arrestin family protein Art2/Ecm21, an adaptor for the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, and its induction through the general amino acid control pathway. Art2 uses a basic patch to recognize C-terminal acidic sorting motifs in AATs and thereby instructs Rsp5 to ubiquitinate proximal lysine residues. When amino acids are in excess, Rsp5 instead uses TORC1-activated Art1 to detect N-terminal acidic sorting motifs within the same AATs, which initiates exclusive substrate-induced endocytosis. Thus, amino acid excess or starvation activate complementary α-arrestin-Rsp5-complexes to control selective endocytosis and adapt nutrient acquisition.