The seminal description of the cellular restriction factor APOBEC3G and its antagonism by HIV-1 Vif has underpinned two decades of research on the host-virus interaction. We recently reported that HIV-1 Vif is also able to degrade the PPP2R5 family of regulatory subunits of key cellular phosphatase PP2A (PPP2R5A-E; Greenwood et al., 2016; Naamati et al., 2019). We now identify amino acid polymorphisms at positions 31 and 128 of HIV-1 Vif which selectively regulate the degradation of PPP2R5 family proteins. These residues covary across HIV-1 viruses in vivo, favouring depletion of PPP2R5A-E. Through analysis of point mutants and naturally occurring Vif variants, we further show that degradation of PPP2R5 family subunits is both necessary and sufficient for Vif-dependent G2/M cell cycle arrest. Antagonism of PP2A by HIV-1 Vif is therefore independent of APOBEC3 family proteins, and regulates cell cycle progression in HIV-infected cells.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Proteomic datasets have been deposited to PRIDE, under the accession PXD018271, and are summarised in Source data files for Figures 2, 6 and 7.
- Nicholas J Matheson
- Nicholas J Matheson
- Paul J Lehner
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Human subjects: Ethical permission for this study was granted by the University of Cambridge Human Biology Research Ethics Committee (HBREC.2017.20). Written informed consent was obtained from all volunteers prior to providing blood samples.
- Frank Kirchhoff, Ulm University Medical Center, Germany
© 2020, Marelli et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Viruses manipulate host cells to enhance their replication, and the identification of cellular factors targeted by viruses has led to key insights into both viral pathogenesis and cell biology. In this study, we develop an HIV reporter virus (HIV-AFMACS) displaying a streptavidin-binding affinity tag at the surface of infected cells, allowing facile one-step selection with streptavidin-conjugated magnetic beads. We use this system to obtain pure populations of HIV-infected primary human CD4+ T cells for detailed proteomic analysis, and quantitate approximately 9000 proteins across multiple donors on a dynamic background of T cell activation. Amongst 650 HIV-dependent changes (q < 0.05), we describe novel Vif-dependent targets FMR1 and DPH7, and 192 proteins not identified and/or regulated in T cell lines, such as ARID5A and PTPN22. We therefore provide a high-coverage functional proteomic atlas of HIV infection, and a mechanistic account of host factors subverted by the virus in its natural target cell.
Chlamydia trachomatis (Ctr) can persist over extended times within their host cell and thereby establish chronic infections. One of the major inducers of chlamydial persistence is interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) released by immune cells as a mechanism of immune defence. IFN-γ activates the catabolic depletion of L-tryptophan (Trp) via indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), resulting in persistent Ctr. Here, we show that IFN-γ induces the downregulation of c-Myc, the key regulator of host cell metabolism, in a STAT1-dependent manner. Expression of c-Myc rescued Ctr from IFN-γ-induced persistence in cell lines and human fallopian tube organoids. Trp concentrations control c-Myc levels most likely via the PI3K-GSK3β axis. Unbiased metabolic analysis revealed that Ctr infection reprograms the host cell tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to support pyrimidine biosynthesis. Addition of TCA cycle intermediates or pyrimidine/purine nucleosides to infected cells rescued Ctr from IFN-γ-induced persistence. Thus, our results challenge the longstanding hypothesis of Trp depletion through IDO as the major mechanism of IFN-γ-induced metabolic immune defence and significantly extends the understanding of the role of IFN-γ as a broad modulator of host cell metabolism.