The AAA protein Msp1 extracts mislocalized tail-anchored membrane proteins and targets them for degradation, thus maintaining proper cell organization. How Msp1 selects its substrates and firmly engages them during the energetically unfavorable extraction process remains a mystery. To address this question, we solved cryo-EM structures of Msp1-substrate complexes at near-atomic resolution. Akin to other AAA proteins, Msp1 forms hexameric spirals that translocate substrates through a central pore. A singular hydrophobic substrate recruitment site is exposed at the spiral's seam, which we propose positions the substrate for entry into the pore. There, a tight web of aromatic amino acids grips the substrate in a sequence-promiscuous, hydrophobic milieu. Elements at the intersubunit interfaces coordinate ATP hydrolysis with the subunits' positions in the spiral. We present a comprehensive model of Msp1's mechanism, which follows general architectural principles established for other AAA proteins yet specializes Msp1 for its unique role in membrane protein extraction.
All data needed to evaluate the conclusions in the paper are present in the paper and/or the supplementary materials. The atomic models were deposited in the protein data bank under the accession codes 6PDW, 6PDY and 6PE0; the associated cryo-EM maps were deposited in the electron microscopy data bank (EMDB) under the accession codes EMD-20318, EMD-20319 and EMD-20320
- Peter Walter
- Lan Wang
- Peter Walter
- Lan Wang
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Franz-Ulrich Hartl, Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Germany
© 2020, Wang et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Gasdermin-D (GSDMD) is the ultimate effector of pyroptosis, a form of programmed cell death associated with pathogen invasion and inflammation. After proteolytic cleavage by caspases, the GSDMD N-terminal domain (GSDMDNT) assembles on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane and induces the formation of membrane pores. We use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to study GSDMDNT monomers, oligomers, and rings in an asymmetric plasma membrane mimetic. We identify distinct interaction motifs of GSDMDNT with phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) and phosphatidylserine (PS) headgroups and describe their conformational dependence. Oligomers are stabilized by shared lipid binding sites between neighboring monomers acting akin to double-sided tape. We show that already small GSDMDNT oligomers support stable, water-filled, and ion-conducting membrane pores bounded by curled beta-sheets. In large-scale simulations, we resolve the process of pore formation from GSDMDNT arcs and lipid efflux from partial rings. We find that high-order GSDMDNT oligomers can crack under the line tension of 86 pN created by an open membrane edge to form the slit pores or closed GSDMDNT rings seen in atomic force microscopy experiments. Our simulations provide a detailed view of key steps in GSDMDNT-induced plasma membrane pore formation, including sublytic pores that explain nonselective ion flux during early pyroptosis.
Piezo1 is a stretch-gated ion channel required for mechanosensation in many organ systems. Recent findings point to a new role for Piezo1 in the gut, suggesting that it is a sensor of microbial single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) rather than mechanical force. If true, this would redefine the scope of Piezo biology. Here, we sought to replicate the central finding that fecal ssRNA is a natural agonist of Piezo1. While we observe that fecal extracts and ssRNA can stimulate calcium influx in certain cell lines, this response is independent of Piezo1. Additionally, sterilized dietary extracts devoid of gut biome RNA show similar cell line-specific stimulatory activity to fecal extracts. Together, our data highlight potential confounds inherent to gut-derived extracts, exclude Piezo1 as a receptor for ssRNA in the gut, and support a dedicated role for Piezo channels in mechanosensing.