The AAA protein Msp1 extracts mislocalized tail-anchored membrane proteins and targets them for degradation, thus maintaining proper cell organization. How Msp1 selects its substrates and firmly engages them during the energetically unfavorable extraction process remains a mystery. To address this question, we solved cryo-EM structures of Msp1-substrate complexes at near-atomic resolution. Akin to other AAA proteins, Msp1 forms hexameric spirals that translocate substrates through a central pore. A singular hydrophobic substrate recruitment site is exposed at the spiral's seam, which we propose positions the substrate for entry into the pore. There, a tight web of aromatic amino acids grips the substrate in a sequence-promiscuous, hydrophobic milieu. Elements at the intersubunit interfaces coordinate ATP hydrolysis with the subunits' positions in the spiral. We present a comprehensive model of Msp1's mechanism, which follows general architectural principles established for other AAA proteins yet specializes Msp1 for its unique role in membrane protein extraction.
All data needed to evaluate the conclusions in the paper are present in the paper and/or the supplementary materials. The atomic models were deposited in the protein data bank under the accession codes 6PDW, 6PDY and 6PE0; the associated cryo-EM maps were deposited in the electron microscopy data bank (EMDB) under the accession codes EMD-20318, EMD-20319 and EMD-20320
- Peter Walter
- Lan Wang
- Peter Walter
- Lan Wang
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Franz-Ulrich Hartl, Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Germany
© 2020, Wang et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Prestin responds to transmembrane voltage fluctuations by changing its cross-sectional area, a process underlying the electromotility of outer hair cells and cochlear amplification. Prestin belongs to the SLC26 family of anion transporters yet is the only member capable of displaying electromotility. Prestin’s voltage-dependent conformational changes are driven by the putative displacement of residue R399 and a set of sparse charged residues within the transmembrane domain, following the binding of a Cl− anion at a conserved binding site formed by the amino termini of the TM3 and TM10 helices. However, a major conundrum arises as to how an anion that binds in proximity to a positive charge (R399), can promote the voltage sensitivity of prestin. Using hydrogen–deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, we find that prestin displays an unstable anion-binding site, where folding of the amino termini of TM3 and TM10 is coupled to Cl− binding. This event shortens the TM3–TM10 electrostatic gap, thereby connecting the two helices, resulting in reduced cross-sectional area. These folding events upon anion binding are absent in SLC26A9, a non-electromotile transporter closely related to prestin. Dynamics of prestin embedded in a lipid bilayer closely match that in detergent micelle, except for a destabilized lipid-facing helix TM6 that is critical to prestin’s mechanical expansion. We observe helix fraying at prestin’s anion-binding site but cooperative unfolding of multiple lipid-facing helices, features that may promote prestin’s fast electromechanical rearrangements. These results highlight a novel role of the folding equilibrium of the anion-binding site, and help define prestin’s unique voltage-sensing mechanism and electromotility.
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are trimeric proton-gated sodium channels. Recent work has shown that these channels play a role in necroptosis following prolonged acidic exposure like occurs in stroke. The C-terminus of ASIC1a is thought to mediate necroptotic cell death through interaction with receptor interacting serine threonine kinase 1 (RIPK1). This interaction is hypothesized to be inhibited at rest via an interaction between the C- and N-termini which blocks the RIPK1 binding site. Here, we use two transition metal ion FRET methods to investigate the conformational dynamics of the termini at neutral and acidic pH. We do not find evidence that the termini are close enough to be bound while the channel is at rest and find that the termini may modestly move closer together during acidification. At rest, the N-terminus adopts a conformation parallel to the membrane about 10 Å away. The distal end of the C-terminus may also spend time close to the membrane at rest. After acidification, the proximal portion of the N-terminus moves marginally closer to the membrane whereas the distal portion of the C-terminus swings away from the membrane. Together these data suggest that a new hypothesis for RIPK1 binding during stroke is needed.