The actin cytoskeletal regulator Wiskott Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) has been implicated in maintenance of the autophagy-inflammasome axis in innate murine immune cells. Here, we show that WASp deficiency is associated with impaired rapamycin-induced autophagosome formation and trafficking to lysosomes in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). WASp reconstitution in vitro and in WAS patients following clinical gene therapy restores autophagic flux and is dependent on the actin-related protein complex ARP2/3. Induction of mitochondrial damage with CCCP, as a model of selective autophagy, also reveals a novel ARP2/3-dependent role for WASp in formation of sequestrating actin cages and maintenance of mitochondrial network integrity. Furthermore, mitochondrial respiration is suppressed in WAS patient MDMs and unable to achieve normal maximal activity when stressed, indicating profound intrinsic metabolic dysfunction. Taken together, we provide evidence of new and important roles of human WASp in autophagic processes and immunometabolic regulation, which may mechanistically contribute to the complex WAS immunophenotype.
All data associated with this study are present in this manuscript and Supporting Files.
- Adrian James Thrasher
- Elizabeth Rivers
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Human subjects: For usage of human CD34+ HSPC from healthy and WAS donors, informed written consent was obtained in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and ethical approval from the Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust and the Institute of Child Health Research Ethics (08/H0713/87).
- Tiffany Horng, ShanghaiTech University, China
© 2020, Rivers et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
β-Arrestins are master regulators of cellular signaling that operate by desensitizing ligand-activated G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) at the plasma membrane and promoting their subsequent endocytosis. The endocytic activity of β-arrestins is ligand dependent, triggered by GPCR binding, and increasingly recognized to have a multitude of downstream signaling and trafficking consequences that are specifically programmed by the bound GPCR. However, only one biochemical ‘mode’ for GPCR-mediated triggering of the endocytic activity is presently known – displacement of the β-arrestin C-terminus (CT) to expose clathrin-coated pit-binding determinants that are masked in the inactive state. Here, we revise this view by uncovering a second mode of GPCR-triggered endocytic activity that is independent of the β-arrestin CT and, instead, requires the cytosolic base of the β-arrestin C-lobe (CLB). We further show each of the discrete endocytic modes is triggered in a receptor-specific manner, with GPCRs that bind β-arrestin transiently (‘class A’) primarily triggering the CLB-dependent mode and GPCRs that bind more stably (‘class B’) triggering both the CT and CLB-dependent modes in combination. Moreover, we show that different modes have opposing effects on the net signaling output of receptors – with the CLB-dependent mode promoting rapid signal desensitization and the CT-dependent mode enabling prolonged signaling. Together, these results fundamentally revise understanding of how β-arrestins operate as efficient endocytic adaptors while facilitating diversity and flexibility in the control of cell signaling.
The insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) control metabolic homeostasis and cell growth and proliferation. The IR and IGF1R form similar disulfide bonds linked homodimers in the apo-state; however, their ligand binding properties and the structures in the active state differ substantially. It has been proposed that the disulfide-linked C-terminal segment of α-chain (αCTs) of the IR and IGF1R control the cooperativity of ligand binding and regulate the receptor activation. Nevertheless, the molecular basis for the roles of disulfide-linked αCTs in IR and IGF1R activation are still unclear. Here, we report the cryo-EM structures of full-length mouse IGF1R/IGF1 and IR/insulin complexes with modified αCTs that have increased flexibility. Unlike the Γ-shaped asymmetric IGF1R dimer with a single IGF1 bound, the IGF1R with the enhanced flexibility of αCTs can form a T-shaped symmetric dimer with two IGF1s bound. Meanwhile, the IR with non-covalently linked αCTs predominantly adopts an asymmetric conformation with four insulins bound, which is distinct from the T-shaped symmetric IR. Using cell-based experiments, we further showed that both IGF1R and IR with the modified αCTs cannot activate the downstream signaling potently. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that the certain structural rigidity of disulfide-linked αCTs is critical for optimal IR and IGF1R signaling activation.