The thermodynamics of protein folding in bulk solution have been thoroughly investigated for decades. By contrast, measurements of protein substrate stability inside the GroEL/ES chaperonin cage have not been reported. Such measurements require stable encapsulation, i.e. no escape of the substrate into bulk solution during experiments, and a way to perturb protein stability without affecting the chaperonin system itself. Here, by establishing such conditions, we show that protein stability in the chaperonin cage is reduced dramatically by more than 5 kcal mol-1 compared to that in bulk solution. Given that steric confinement alone is stabilizing, our results indicate that hydrophobic and/or electrostatic effects in the cavity are strongly destabilizing. Our findings are consistent with the iterative annealing mechanism of action proposed for the chaperonin GroEL.
All data generated or analyses during this study are included in the manuscript file.
- Amnon Horovitz
- Amnon Horovitz
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Lewis E Kay, University of Toronto, Canada
© 2020, Korobko et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
An imbalance of the gut microbiota, termed dysbiosis, has a substantial impact on host physiology. However, the mechanism by which host deals with gut dysbiosis to maintain fitness remains largely unknown. In Caenorhabditis elegans, Escherichia coli, which is its bacterial diet, proliferates in its intestinal lumen during aging. Here, we demonstrate that progressive intestinal proliferation of E. coli activates the transcription factor DAF-16, which is required for maintenance of longevity and organismal fitness in worms with age. DAF-16 up-regulates two lysozymes lys-7 and lys-8, thus limiting the bacterial accumulation in the gut of worms during aging. During dysbiosis, the levels of indole produced by E. coli are increased in worms. Indole is involved in the activation of DAF-16 by TRPA-1 in neurons of worms. Our finding demonstrates that indole functions as a microbial signal of gut dysbiosis to promote fitness of the host.
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