The thermodynamics of protein folding in bulk solution have been thoroughly investigated for decades. By contrast, measurements of protein substrate stability inside the GroEL/ES chaperonin cage have not been reported. Such measurements require stable encapsulation, i.e. no escape of the substrate into bulk solution during experiments, and a way to perturb protein stability without affecting the chaperonin system itself. Here, by establishing such conditions, we show that protein stability in the chaperonin cage is reduced dramatically by more than 5 kcal mol-1 compared to that in bulk solution. Given that steric confinement alone is stabilizing, our results indicate that hydrophobic and/or electrostatic effects in the cavity are strongly destabilizing. Our findings are consistent with the iterative annealing mechanism of action proposed for the chaperonin GroEL.
All data generated or analyses during this study are included in the manuscript file.
- Amnon Horovitz
- Amnon Horovitz
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Lewis E Kay, University of Toronto, Canada
© 2020, Korobko et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The TEA domain (TEAD) transcription factor forms a transcription co-activation complex with the key downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, YAP/TAZ. TEAD-YAP controls the expression of Hippo-responsive genes involved in cell proliferation, development, and tumorigenesis. Hyperactivation of TEAD-YAP activities is observed in many human cancers and is associated with cancer cell proliferation, survival, and immune evasion. Therefore, targeting the TEAD-YAP complex has emerged as an attractive therapeutic approach. We previously reported that the mammalian TEAD transcription factors (TEAD1–4) possess auto-palmitoylation activities and contain an evolutionarily conserved palmitate-binding pocket (PBP), which allows small-molecule modulation. Since then, several reversible and irreversible inhibitors have been reported by binding to PBP. Here, we report a new class of TEAD inhibitors with a novel binding mode. Representative analog TM2 shows potent inhibition of TEAD auto-palmitoylation both in vitro and in cells. Surprisingly, the co-crystal structure of the human TEAD2 YAP-binding domain (YBD) in complex with TM2 reveals that TM2 adopts an unexpected binding mode by occupying not only the hydrophobic PBP, but also a new side binding pocket formed by hydrophilic residues. RNA-seq analysis shows that TM2 potently and specifically suppresses TEAD-YAP transcriptional activities. Consistently, TM2 exhibits strong antiproliferation effects as a single agent or in combination with a MEK inhibitor in YAP-dependent cancer cells. These findings establish TM2 as a promising small-molecule inhibitor against TEAD-YAP activities and provide new insights for designing novel TEAD inhibitors with enhanced selectivity and potency.
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