The CX3CR1 (chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1) expression levels on immune cells have significant importance in maintaining tissue homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions. The factors implicated in the regulation of CX3CR1 and its specific ligand CX3CL1 (fractalkine) expression remain largely unknown. Recent studies provide evidence that host`s misfolded proteins occurring in the forms of polymers or amyloid fibrils can regulate CX3CR1 expression. Herein, a novel example demonstrates that polymers of human ZZ alpha-1 antitrypsin (Z-AAT) protein, resulting from its conformational misfolding due to the Z (Glu342Lys) mutation in SERPINA1 gene, strongly lower CX3CR1 mRNA expression in human PBMCs. This parallels with increase of intracellular levels of CX3CR1 and Z-AAT proteins. Presented data indicate the involvement of the CX3CR1 pathway in the Z-AAT-related disorders and further support the role of misfolded proteins in CX3CR1 regulation.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files have been provided for Figures
- Pavel Strnad
- Sabina Janciauskiene
- Pavel Strnad
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Human subjects: The institutional review board of Aachen University (EK 173/15) provided ethical approval for individuals recruited in Germany. Leiden University Medical Center provided ethical approval (project P00.083 and P01.101) for the second study group. For all individuals detailed medical records data were anonymized. All participants issued a written informed consent according to the ethical guidelines of the Helsinki Declaration (Hong Kong Amendment) as well as Good Clinical Practice (European guidelines).
- Koyeli Mapa, Shiv Nadar University, India
- Received: November 13, 2020
- Accepted: May 16, 2021
- Accepted Manuscript published: May 18, 2021 (version 1)
© 2021, Tumpara et al.
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