Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimer composed of scaffolding (A), catalytic (C), and regulatory (B) subunits. PP2A complexes with B56 subunits are targeted by Shugoshin and BUBR1 to protect centromeric cohesion and stabilise kinetochore-microtubule attachments in yeast and mouse meiosis. In C. elegans the closest BUBR1 ortholog lacks the B56-interaction domain and Shugoshin is not required for meiotic segregation. Therefore, the role of PP2A in C. elegans female meiosis is unknown. We report that PP2A is essential for meiotic spindle assembly and chromosome dynamics during C. elegans female meiosis. BUB-1 is the main chromosome-targeting factor for B56 subunits during prometaphase I. BUB-1 recruits PP2A:B56 to the chromosomes via a newly identified LxxIxE motif in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and this recruitment is important for proper chromosome congression. Our results highlight a novel mechanism for B56 recruitment, essential for recruiting a pool of PP2A involved in chromosome congression during meiosis I.
While some time points are shown in the figures, representative movies showing all time points are provided as Supplementary Movies. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE (Perez-Riverol et al., 2019) partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD023258.
- Laura Bel Borja
- Flavie Soubigou
- Federico Pelisch
- Dhanya K Cheerambathur
- Jacqueline Budrewicz
- Pablo Lara-Gonzalez
- Christopher G Sorensen Turpin
- Joshua N Bembenek
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Jon Pines, Institute of Cancer Research Research, United Kingdom
© 2020, Bel Borja et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Having its genome makes the mitochondrion a unique and semiautonomous organelle within cells. Mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a double-stranded closed circular molecule of about 16 kb coding for 37 genes. Mutations, including deletions in the mitochondrial genome, can culminate in different human diseases. Mapping the deletion junctions suggests that the breakpoints are generally seen at hotspots. ‘9 bp deletion’ (8271–8281), seen in the intergenic region of cytochrome c oxidase II/tRNALys, is the most common mitochondrial deletion. While it is associated with several diseases like myopathy, dystonia, and hepatocellular carcinoma, it has also been used as an evolutionary marker. However, the mechanism responsible for its fragility is unclear. In the current study, we show that Endonuclease G, a mitochondrial nuclease responsible for nonspecific cleavage of nuclear DNA during apoptosis, can induce breaks at sequences associated with ‘9 bp deletion’ when it is present on a plasmid or in the mitochondrial genome. Through a series of in vitro and intracellular studies, we show that Endonuclease G binds to G-quadruplex structures formed at the hotspot and induces DNA breaks. Therefore, we uncover a new role for Endonuclease G in generating mtDNA deletions, which depends on the formation of G4 DNA within the mitochondrial genome. In summary, we identify a novel property of Endonuclease G, besides its role in apoptosis and the recently described ‘elimination of paternal mitochondria during fertilisation.
Obesity is generally associated with insulin resistance in liver and muscle and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, however there is a population of obese people that remain insulin sensitive. Similarly, recent work suggests that mice fed high carbohydrate diets can become obese without apparent glucose intolerance. To investigate this phenomenon further, we fed mice either a high fat (Hi-F) or high starch (Hi-ST) diet and measured adiposity, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and tissue lipids compared to control mice fed a standard laboratory chow. Both Hi-ST and Hi-F mice accumulated a similar amount of fat and tissue triglyceride compared to chow-fed mice. However, while Hi-F diet mice developed glucose intolerance as well as liver and muscle insulin resistance (assessed via euglycaemic/hyperinsulinaemic clamp), obese Hi-ST mice maintained glucose tolerance and insulin action similar to lean, chow-fed controls. This preservation of insulin action despite obesity in Hi-ST mice was associated with differences in de novo lipogenesis and levels of C22:0 ceramide in liver and C18:0 ceramide in muscle. This indicates that dietary manipulation can influence insulin action independently of the level of adiposity and that the presence of specific ceramide species correlates with these differences.