KSR1-and ERK-dependent translational regulation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered a transcriptional process that induces a switch in cells from a polarized state to a migratory phenotype. Here we show that KSR1 and ERK promote EMT-like phenotype through the preferential translation of Epithelial-Stromal Interaction 1 (EPSTI1), which is required to induce the switch from E- to N-cadherin and coordinate migratory and invasive behavior. EPSTI1 is overexpressed in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Disruption of KSR1 or EPSTI1 significantly impairs cell migration and invasion in vitro, and reverses EMT-like phenotype, in part, by decreasing the expression of N-cadherin and the transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin expression, ZEB1 and Slug. In CRC cells lacking KSR1, ectopic EPSTI1 expression restored the E- to N-cadherin switch, migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. KSR1-dependent induction of EMT-like phenotype via selective translation of mRNAs reveals its underappreciated role in remodeling the translational landscape of CRC cells to promote their migratory and invasive behavior.
The high-throughput sequencing data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo (accession no. GSE164492).
Next generation sequencing analysis of control and KSR1 knockdown CRC cell line translatomes.NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE164492.
Article and author information
Nebraska center for Molecular Target Discovery and Drug Development (P20 GM121316)
- Robert E Lewis
Fred and Pamela Buffet Cancer Support Grant (P30 CA036727)
- Robert E Lewis
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Nahum Sonenberg, McGill University, Canada
- Received: January 16, 2021
- Accepted: May 9, 2021
- Accepted Manuscript published: May 10, 2021 (version 1)
- Version of Record published: June 11, 2021 (version 2)
© 2021, Rao et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
- Page views
Article citation count generated by polling the highest count across the following sources: Crossref, PubMed Central, Scopus.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
Cite this article (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
- Cancer Biology
- Computational and Systems Biology
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a challenging and deadly disease with high tumor microenvironment (TME) heterogeneity. Using an integrative multi-omics analysis and artificial intelligence-enabled spatial analysis of whole-slide images, we performed a comprehensive characterization of TME in colorectal cancer (CCCRC). CRC samples were classified into four CCCRC subtypes with distinct TME features, namely, C1 as the proliferative subtype with low immunogenicity; C2 as the immunosuppressed subtype with the terminally exhausted immune characteristics; C3 as the immune-excluded subtype with the distinct upregulation of stromal components and a lack of T cell infiltration in the tumor core; and C4 as the immunomodulatory subtype with the remarkable upregulation of anti-tumor immune components. The four CCCRC subtypes had distinct histopathologic and molecular characteristics, therapeutic efficacy, and prognosis. We found that the C1 subtype may be suitable for chemotherapy and cetuximab, the C2 subtype may benefit from a combination of chemotherapy and bevacizumab, the C3 subtype has increased sensitivity to the WNT pathway inhibitor WIKI4, and the C4 subtype is a potential candidate for immune checkpoint blockade treatment. Importantly, we established a simple gene classifier for accurate identification of each CCCRC subtype. Collectively our integrative analysis ultimately established a holistic framework to thoroughly dissect the TME of CRC, and the CCCRC classification system with high biological interpretability may contribute to biomarker discovery and future clinical trial design.
- Cancer Biology
In embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) and generally in sarcomas, the role of wild-type and loss or gain-of-function TP53 mutations remains largely undefined. Eliminating mutant or restoring wild-type p53 is challenging; nevertheless, understanding p53 variant effects on tumorigenesis remains central to realizing better treatment outcomes. In ERMS, >70% of patients retain wild-type TP53, yet mutations when present are associated with worse prognosis. Employing a kRASG12D-driven ERMS tumor model and tp53 null (tp53-/-) zebrafish, we define wild-type and patient-specific TP53 mutant effects on tumorigenesis. We demonstrate that tp53 is a major suppressor of tumorigenesis, where tp53 loss expands tumor initiation from <35% to >97% of animals. Characterizing three patient-specific alleles reveals that TP53C176F partially retains wild-type p53 apoptotic activity that can be exploited, whereas TP53P153D and TP53Y220C encode two structurally related proteins with gain-of-function effects that predispose to head musculature ERMS. TP53P153D unexpectedly also predisposes to hedgehog expressing medulloblastomas in the kRASG12D-driven ERMS-model.