Identifying individuals who are at high risk of cancer due to inherited germline mutations is critical for effective implementation of personalized prevention strategies. Most existing models focus on a few specific syndromes; however recent evidence from multi-gene panel testing shows that many syndromes are overlapping, motivating the development of models that incorporate family history on several cancers and predict mutations for a comprehensive panel of genes. We present PanelPRO, a new, open-source R package providing a fast, flexible back-end for multi-gene, multi-cancer risk modeling with pedigree data. It includes a customizable database with default parameter values estimated from published studies and allows users to select any combinations of genes and cancers for their models, including well-established single syndrome BayesMendel models (BRCAPRO and MMRPRO). This leads to more accurate risk predictions and ultimately has a high impact on prevention strategies for cancer and clinical decision making. The package is available for download for research purposes at https://projects.iq.harvard.edu/bayesmendel/panelpro.
This manuscript introduces PanelPRO, an innovative multi-gene multi-cancer Mendelian model. Software for this model, including the model parameter database, is available to download for research use; https://projects.iq.harvard.edu/bayesmendel/panelpro
- Jane W Liang
- Theodore Huang
- Theodore Huang
- Giovanni Parmigani
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Goutham Narla, University of Michigan, United States
© 2021, Lee et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Pancreatic cancer is the seventh leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and despite advancements in disease management, the 5 -year survival rate stands at only 12%. Triptolides have potent anti-tumor activity against different types of cancers, including pancreatic cancer, however poor solubility and toxicity limit their translation into clinical use. We synthesized a novel pro-drug of triptolide, (E)–19-[(1’-benzoyloxy-1’-phenyl)-methylidene]-Triptolide (CK21), which was formulated into an emulsion for in vitro and in vivo testing in rats and mice, and used human pancreatic cancer cell lines and patient-derived pancreatic tumor organoids. A time-course transcriptomic profiling of tumor organoids treated with CK21 in vitro was conducted to define its mechanism of action, as well as transcriptomic profiling at a single time point post-CK21 administration in vivo. Intravenous administration of emulsified CK21 resulted in the stable release of triptolide, and potent anti-proliferative effects on human pancreatic cancer cell lines and patient-derived pancreatic tumor organoids in vitro, and with minimal toxicity in vivo. Time course transcriptomic profiling of tumor organoids treated with CK21 in vitro revealed <10 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 3 hr and ~8,000 DEGs at 12 hr. Overall inhibition of general RNA transcription was observed, and Ingenuity pathway analysis together with functional cellular assays confirmed inhibition of the NF-κB pathway, increased oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading ultimately to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, reduced B-cell-lymphoma protein 2 (BCL2) expression, and mitochondrial-mediated tumor cell apoptosis. Thus, CK21 is a novel pro-drug of triptolide that exerts potent anti-proliferative effects on human pancreatic tumors by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway, leading ultimately to mitochondrial-mediated tumor cell apoptosis.
The Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) methylates H3K27 to regulate development and cell fate by transcriptional silencing. Alteration of PRC2 is associated with various cancers. Here, we show that mouse Kdm1a deletion causes dramatic reduction of PRC2 proteins, whereas mouse null mutation of L3mbtl3 or Dcaf5 results in PRC2 accumulation and increased H3K27 trimethylation. The catalytic subunit of PRC2, EZH2, is methylated at lysine 20 (K20), promoting EZH2 proteolysis by L3MBTL3 and the CLR4DCAF5 ubiquitin ligase. KDM1A (LSD1) demethylates the methylated K20 to stabilize EZH2. K20 methylation is inhibited by AKT-mediated phosphorylation of serine 21 in EZH2. Mouse Ezh2K20R/K20R mutants develop hepatosplenomegaly associated with high GFI1B expression, and Ezh2K20R/K20R mutant bone marrows expand hematopoietic stem cells and downstream hematopoietic populations. Our studies reveal that EZH2 is regulated by methylation-dependent proteolysis, which is negatively controlled by AKT-mediated S21 phosphorylation to establish a methylation-phosphorylation switch to control the PRC2 activity and hematopoiesis.