Specific recognition of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) in mRNA by RNA-binding proteins containing a YT521-B homology (YTH) domain is important in eukaryotic gene regulation. The Arabidopsis YTH-domain protein ECT2 is thought to bind to mRNA at URU(m6A)Y sites, yet RR(m6A)CH is the canonical m6A consensus site in all eukaryotes and ECT2 functions require m6A binding activity. Here, we apply iCLIP (individual-nucleotide resolution cross-linking and immunoprecipitation) and HyperTRIBE (targets of RNA-binding proteins identified by editing) to define high-quality target sets of ECT2, and analyze the patterns of enriched sequence motifs around ECT2 crosslink sites. Our analyses show that ECT2 does in fact bind to RR(m6A)CH. Pyrimidine-rich motifs are enriched around, but not at m6A-sites, reflecting a preference for N6-adenosine methylation of RRACH/GGAU islands in pyrimidine-rich regions. Such motifs, particularly oligo-U and UNUNU upstream of m6A sites, are also implicated in ECT2 binding via its intrinsically disordered region (IDR). Finally, URUAY-type motifs are enriched at ECT2 crosslink sites, but their distinct properties suggest function as sites of competition between binding of ECT2 and as yet unidentified RNA-binding proteins. Our study provides coherence between genetic and molecular studies of m6A-YTH function in plants, and reveals new insight into the mode of RNA recognition by YTH-domain-containing proteins.
All sequencing data (iCLIP-seq, HyperTRIBE, mRNA-seq, small RNA-seq) have been deposited in the European Nucleotide Archive under accession code PRJEB44359.All code is available at GitHubhttps://github.com/sarah-ku/targets_arabidopsis
Principles of mRNA targeting and regulation via Arabidopsis YTHDF proteinsEuropean Nucleotide Archive, PRJEB44359.
- Peter Brodersen
- Peter Brodersen
- Laura Arribas-Hernández
- Prof. Dr. Dorothee Staiger
- Robin Andersson
- Robin Andersson
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Pablo A Manavella, Universidad Nacional del Litoral-CONICET, Argentina
© 2021, Arribas-Hernández et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The Sanger Excellence Fellowship has been established to increase the representation of researchers with Black-heritage backgrounds at a leading research centre in the UK.
Maintaining germline genome integrity is essential and enormously complex. Although many proteins are involved in DNA replication, proofreading, and repair, mutator alleles have largely eluded detection in mammals. DNA replication and repair proteins often recognize sequence motifs or excise lesions at specific nucleotides. Thus, we might expect that the spectrum of de novo mutations – the frequencies of C>T, A>G, etc. – will differ between genomes that harbor either a mutator or wild-type allele. Previously, we used quantitative trait locus mapping to discover candidate mutator alleles in the DNA repair gene Mutyh that increased the C>A germline mutation rate in a family of inbred mice known as the BXDs (Sasani et al., 2022, Ashbrook et al., 2021). In this study we developed a new method to detect alleles associated with mutation spectrum variation and applied it to mutation data from the BXDs. We discovered an additional C>A mutator locus on chromosome 6 that overlaps Ogg1, a DNA glycosylase involved in the same base-excision repair network as Mutyh (David et al., 2007). Its effect depends on the presence of a mutator allele near Mutyh, and BXDs with mutator alleles at both loci have greater numbers of C>A mutations than those with mutator alleles at either locus alone. Our new methods for analyzing mutation spectra reveal evidence of epistasis between germline mutator alleles and may be applicable to mutation data from humans and other model organisms.