To fight the Covid-19 pandemic caused by the RNA virus SARS-CoV-2 a global vaccination campaign is in progress to achieve the immunization of billions of people mainly with adenoviral vector- or mRNA-based vaccines, all of which encode the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. In some rare cases, cerebral venous sinus thromboses (CVST) have been reported as a severe side effect occurring 4 to 14 days after the first vaccination and were often accompanied by thrombocytopenia. Besides CVST, splanchnic vein thromboses (SVT) and other thromboembolic events have been observed. These events only occurred following vaccination with adenoviral vector-based vaccines but not following vaccination with mRNA-based vaccines. Meanwhile, scientists have proposed an immune-based pathomechanism and the condition has been coined Vaccine-induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT). Here, we describe an unexpected mechanism that could explain thromboembolic events occurring with DNA-based but not with RNA-based vaccines. We show that DNA-encoded mRNA coding for Spike protein can be spliced in a way that the transmembrane anchor of Spike is lost, so that nearly full-length Spike is secreted from cells. Secreted Spike variants could potentially initiate severe side effects when binding to cells via the ACE2 receptor. Avoiding such splicing events should become part of a rational vaccine design to increase safety of prospective vaccines.
The original WUHAN SARS-CoV-2 sequence is available in the NCBI database (NCBI Reference Sequence: NC_045512.2); the adenoviral and codon-optimized Spike sequence data have a protected intellectual property by the companies. The primary sequence of Ad5.S, designed and used by the colleagues in Ulm, can be retrieved upon request (contact Prof. Stefan Kochanek).
- Rolf Marschalek
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Saskia Middeldorp, Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands
© 2022, Kowarz et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Successful regeneration requires the coordinated execution of multiple cellular responses to injury. In amputated zebrafish fins, mature osteoblasts dedifferentiate, migrate towards the injury and form proliferative osteogenic blastema cells. We show that osteoblast migration is preceded by cell elongation and alignment along the proximodistal axis, which require actomyosin, but not microtubule turnover. Surprisingly, osteoblast dedifferentiation and migration can be uncoupled. Using pharmacological and genetic interventions, we found that NF-ĸB and retinoic acid signalling regulate dedifferentiation without affecting migration, while the complement system and actomyosin dynamics affect migration but not dedifferentiation. Furthermore, by removing bone at two locations within a fin ray, we established an injury model containing two injury sites. We found that osteoblasts dedifferentiate at and migrate towards both sites, while accumulation of osteogenic progenitor cells and regenerative bone formation only occur at the distal-facing injury. Together, these data indicate that osteoblast dedifferentiation and migration represent generic injury responses that are differentially regulated and can occur independently of each other and of regenerative growth. We conclude that successful fin bone regeneration appears to involve the coordinated execution of generic and regeneration-specific responses of osteoblasts to injury.
Branched actin networks are self-assembling molecular motors that move biological membranes and drive many important cellular processes, including phagocytosis, endocytosis, and pseudopod protrusion. When confronted with opposing forces, the growth rate of these networks slows and their density increases, but the stoichiometry of key components does not change. The molecular mechanisms governing this force response are not well understood, so we used single-molecule imaging and AFM cantilever deflection to measure how applied forces affect each step in branched actin network assembly. Although load forces are observed to increase the density of growing filaments, we find that they actually decrease the rate of filament nucleation due to inhibitory interactions between actin filament ends and nucleation promoting factors. The force-induced increase in network density turns out to result from an exponential drop in the rate constant that governs filament capping. The force dependence of filament capping matches that of filament elongation and can be explained by expanding Brownian Ratchet theory to cover both processes. We tested a key prediction of this expanded theory by measuring the force-dependent activity of engineered capping protein variants and found that increasing the size of the capping protein increases its sensitivity to applied forces. In summary, we find that Brownian Ratchets underlie not only the ability of growing actin filaments to generate force but also the ability of branched actin networks to adapt their architecture to changing loads.