The cranial endo- and dermal skeletons, which comprise the vertebrate skull, evolved independently over 470 million years ago and form separately during embryogenesis. In mammals, much of the cartilaginous chondrocranium is transient, undergoing endochondral ossification or disappearing, so its role in skull morphogenesis is not well studied and it remains an enigmatic structure. We provide complete three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the laboratory mouse chondrocranium from embryonic day 13.5 through 17.5 using a novel methodology of uncertainty-guided segmentation of phosphotungstic enhanced 3D microcomputed tomography images with sparse annotation. We evaluate the embryonic mouse chondrocranium and dermatocranium in 3D and delineate the effects of a Fgfr2 variant on embryonic chondrocranial cartilages and on their association with forming dermal bones using the Fgfr2cC342Y/+ Crouzon syndrome mouse. We show that the dermatocranium develops outside of and in shapes that conform to the chondrocranium. Results reveal direct effects of the Fgfr2 variant on embryonic cartilage, on chondrocranium morphology, and on the association between chondrocranium and dermatocranium development. Histologically we observe a trend of relatively more chondrocytes, larger chondrocytes, and/or more matrix in the Fgfr2cC342Y/+ embryos at all timepoints before the chondrocranium begins to disintegrate at E16.5. The chondrocrania and forming dermatocrania of Fgfr2cC342Y/+ embryos are relatively large, but a contrasting trend begins at E16.5 and continues into early postnatal (P0 and P2) timepoints, with the skulls of older Fgfr2cC342Y/+ mice reduced in most dimensions compared to Fgfr2c+/+ littermates. Our findings have implications for the study and treatment of human craniofacial disease, for understanding the impact of chondrocranial morphology on skull growth, and potentially on the evolution of skull morphology.
Due to the large size of the majority of these data, data have been made available through Penn State University Libraries ScholarSphere repository at DOI 10.26207/qgke-r185 and include: bone micro-CT images, PTA-e micro-CT images, 3D reconstruction examples of the chondrocrania of one unaffected (Fgfr2c+/+) and one affected (Fgfr2cC342Y/+) at E13.5, E14.5, E15.5, E16.5, and E17.5, bone volumes, histological images, histomorphometric data, 3D landmark coordinate data, correlation matrices estimated by MIBoot used in MI analyses, PCA output, and suture scores. Information on how to download the WinEDMA programs can be found at https://getahead.la.psu.edu/resources/edma and the EDMAinR programs are available on github (https://github.com/psolymos/EDMAinR). Code for automatic chondrocranium segmentation with very sparse annotation via uncertainty-guided self-training is available through https://github.com/ndcse-medical/CartSeg_UGST. PTA-e staining protocols for various embryonic ages of mice are available: https://doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.136
A dysmorphic mouse model reveals developmental interactions of chondrocranium and dermatocraniumThe Pennsylvania State University ScholarSphere doi:10.26207/qgke-r185.
- Joan T Richtsmeier
- Joan T Richtsmeier
- Joan T Richtsmeier
- Danny Z Chen
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (#446558) of the Pennsylvania State University.
- Min Zhu, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
- Received: December 23, 2021
- Accepted: June 14, 2022
- Accepted Manuscript published: June 15, 2022 (version 1)
© 2022, Motch Perrine et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Whereas no known living vertebrate possesses gills derived from the jaw-forming mandibular arch, it has been proposed that the jaw arose through modifications of an ancestral mandibular gill. Here, we show that the zebrafish pseudobranch, which regulates blood pressure in the eye, develops from mandibular arch mesenchyme and first pouch epithelia and shares gene expression, enhancer utilization, and developmental gata3 dependence with the gills. Combined with work in chondrichthyans, our findings in a teleost fish point to the presence of a mandibular pseudobranch with serial homology to gills in the last common ancestor of jawed vertebrates, consistent with a gill origin of vertebrate jaws.
Heterozygous, missense mutations in α- or β-tubulin genes are associated with a wide range of human brain malformations, known as tubulinopathies. We seek to understand whether a mutation’s impact at the molecular and cellular levels scale with the severity of brain malformation. Here, we focus on two mutations at the valine 409 residue of TUBA1A, V409I, and V409A, identified in patients with pachygyria or lissencephaly, respectively. We find that ectopic expression of TUBA1A-V409I/A mutants disrupt neuronal migration in mice and promote excessive neurite branching and a decrease in the number of neurite retraction events in primary rat neuronal cultures. These neuronal phenotypes are accompanied by increased microtubule acetylation and polymerization rates. To determine the molecular mechanisms, we modeled the V409I/A mutants in budding yeast and found that they promote intrinsically faster microtubule polymerization rates in cells and in reconstitution experiments with purified tubulin. In addition, V409I/A mutants decrease the recruitment of XMAP215/Stu2 to plus ends in budding yeast and ablate tubulin binding to TOG (tumor overexpressed gene) domains. In each assay tested, the TUBA1A-V409I mutant exhibits an intermediate phenotype between wild type and the more severe TUBA1A-V409A, reflecting the severity observed in brain malformations. Together, our data support a model in which the V409I/A mutations disrupt microtubule regulation typically conferred by XMAP215 proteins during neuronal morphogenesis and migration, and this impact on tubulin activity at the molecular level scales with the impact at the cellular and tissue levels.