Previously we showed that high-resolution template matching can localize ribosomes in two-dimensional electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) images of untilted Mycoplasma pneumoniae cells with high precision (Lucas et al., 2021). Here we show that comparing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) observed with 2DTM using different templates relative to the same cellular target can correct for local variation in noise and differentiate related complexes in focused ion beam (FIB)-milled cell sections. We use a maximum likelihood approach to define the probability of each particle belonging to each class, thereby establishing a statistic to describe the confidence of our classification. We apply this method in two contexts to locate and classify related intermediate states of 60S ribosome biogenesis in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell nucleus. In the first, we separate the nuclear pre-60S population from the cytoplasmic mature 60S population, using the subcellular localization to validate assignment. In the second, we show that relative 2DTM SNRs can be used to separate mixed populations of nuclear pre-60S that are not visually separable. 2DTM can distinguish related molecular populations without the need to generate 3D reconstructions from the data to be classified, permitting classification even when only a few target particles exist in a cell.
Micrographs, templates and scaled maximum intensity projections (MIPs) in this study have been deposited to EMPIAR and are accessible with the following public access code: EMPIAR-10998
- Bronwyn A Lucas
- Nikolaus Grigorieff
- Nikolaus Grigorieff
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Sjors HW Scheres, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, United Kingdom
© 2022, Lucas et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo cycles of fission and fusion at a unified platform defined by endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria membrane contact sites (MCSs). These MCSs or nodes co-localize fission and fusion machinery. We set out to identify how ER-associated mitochondrial nodes can regulate both fission and fusion machinery assembly. We have used a promiscuous biotin ligase linked to the fusion machinery, Mfn1, and proteomics to identify an ER membrane protein, ABHD16A, as a major regulator of node formation. In the absence of ABHD16A, fission and fusion machineries fail to recruit to ER-associated mitochondrial nodes, and fission and fusion rates are significantly reduced. ABHD16A contains an acyltransferase motif and an α/β hydrolase domain, and point mutations in critical residues of these regions fail to rescue the formation of ER-associated mitochondrial hot spots. These data suggest a mechanism whereby ABHD16A functions by altering phospholipid composition at ER-mitochondria MCSs. Our data present the first example of an ER membrane protein that regulates the recruitment of both fission and fusion machineries to mitochondria.
First recognized more than 30 years ago, glycine protects cells against rupture from diverse types of injury. This robust and widely observed effect has been speculated to target a late downstream process common to multiple modes of tissue injury. The molecular target of glycine that mediates cytoprotection, however, remains elusive. Here, we show that glycine works at the level of NINJ1, a newly identified executioner of plasma membrane rupture in pyroptosis, necrosis, and post-apoptosis lysis. NINJ1 is thought to cluster within the plasma membrane to cause cell rupture. We demonstrate that the execution of pyroptotic cell rupture is similar for human and mouse NINJ1, and that NINJ1 knockout functionally and morphologically phenocopies glycine cytoprotection in macrophages undergoing lytic cell death. Next, we show that glycine prevents NINJ1 clustering by either direct or indirect mechanisms. In pyroptosis, glycine preserves cellular integrity but does not affect upstream inflammasome activities or accompanying energetic cell death. By positioning NINJ1 clustering as a glycine target, our data resolve a long-standing mechanism for glycine-mediated cytoprotection. This new understanding will inform the development of cell preservation strategies to counter pathologic lytic cell death.