Evolutionary rescue of phosphomannomutase deficiency in yeast models of human disease
The most common cause of human congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are mutations in the phosphomannomutase gene PMM2, which affect protein N-linked glycosylation. The yeast gene SEC53 encodes a homolog of human PMM2. We evolved 384 populations of yeast harboring one of two human-disease-associated alleles, sec53-V238M and sec53-F126L, or wild-type SEC53. We find that after 1,000 generations, most populations compensate for the slow-growth phenotype associated with the sec53 human-disease-associated alleles. Through whole-genome sequencing we identify compensatory mutations, including known SEC53 genetic interactors. We observe an enrichment of compensatory mutations in other genes whose human homologs are associated with Type 1 CDG, including PGM1, which encodes the minor isoform of phosphoglucomutase in yeast. By genetic reconstruction, we show that evolved pgm1 mutations are dominant and allele-specific genetic interactors that restore both protein glycosylation and growth of yeast harboring the sec53-V238M allele. Finally, we characterize the enzymatic activity of purified Pgm1 mutant proteins. We find that reduction, but not elimination, of Pgm1 activity best compensates for the deleterious phenotypes associated with the sec53-V238M allele. Broadly, our results demonstrate the power of experimental evolution as a tool for identifying genes and pathways that compensate for human-disease associated alleles.
The short-read sequencing data reported in this study have been deposited to the NCBI BioProject database, accession number PRJNA784975.
Experimentally-evolved Saccharomyces cerevisiae clonesNCBI BioProject, PRJNA784975.
The sequencing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strainsNCBI BioProject PRJNA205542.
Evolved Autodiploid ClonesNCBI BioProject PRJNA422100.
Evolved S. cerevisiae population sequencingNCBI BioProject PRJNA668346.
Article and author information
National Institutes of Health (R01GM127420)
- Gregory I Lang
National Institutes of Health (P20GM139769)
- Richard Steet
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Wenying Shou, University College London, United Kingdom
- Received: April 7, 2022
- Preprint posted: April 8, 2022 (view preprint)
- Accepted: October 7, 2022
- Accepted Manuscript published: October 10, 2022 (version 1)
- Version of Record published: October 18, 2022 (version 2)
© 2022, Vignogna et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
- Page views
Article citation count generated by polling the highest count across the following sources: Crossref, PubMed Central, Scopus.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
Cite this article (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
- Evolutionary Biology
Evolutionary theory suggests that individuals should express costly traits at a magnitude that optimizes the trait bearer’s cost-benefit difference. Trait expression varies across a species because costs and benefits vary among individuals. For example, if large individuals pay lower costs than small individuals, then larger individuals should reach optimal cost-benefit differences at greater trait magnitudes. Using the cavitation-shooting weapons found in the big claws of male and female snapping shrimp, we test whether size- and sex-dependent expenditures explain scaling and sex differences in weapon size. We found that males and females from three snapping shrimp species (Alpheus heterochaelis, Alpheus angulosus, and Alpheus estuariensis) show patterns consistent with tradeoffs between weapon and abdomen size. For male A. heterochaelis, the species for which we had the greatest statistical power, smaller individuals showed steeper tradeoffs. Our extensive dataset in A. heterochaelis also included data about pairing, breeding season, and egg clutch size. Therefore, we could test for reproductive tradeoffs and benefits in this species. Female A. heterochaelis exhibited tradeoffs between weapon size and egg count, average egg volume, and total egg mass volume. For average egg volume, smaller females exhibited steeper tradeoffs. Furthermore, in males but not females, large weapons were positively correlated with the probability of being paired and the relative size of their pair mates. In conclusion, we identified size-dependent tradeoffs that could underlie reliable scaling of costly traits. Furthermore, weapons are especially beneficial to males and burdensome to females, which could explain why males have larger weapons than females.
- Evolutionary Biology
The extinct Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas; †1768) was a whale-sized marine mammal that manifested profound morphological specializations to exploit the harsh coastal climate of the North Pacific. Yet despite first-hand accounts of their biology, little is known regarding the physiological adjustments underlying their evolution to this environment. Here, the adult-expressed hemoglobin (Hb; a2β/δ2) of this sirenian is shown to harbor a fixed amino acid replacement at an otherwise invariant position (β/δ82Lys→Asn) that alters multiple aspects of Hb function. First, our functional characterization of recombinant sirenian Hb proteins demonstrate that the Hb-O2 affinity of this sub-Arctic species was less affected by temperature than those of living (sub)tropical sea cows. This phenotype presumably safeguarded O2 delivery to cool peripheral tissues and largely arises from a reduced intrinsic temperature sensitivity of the H. gigas protein. Additional experiments on H. gigas β/δ82Asn→Lys mutant Hb further reveal this exchange renders Steller's sea cow Hb unresponsive to the potent intraerythrocytic allosteric effector 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, a radical modification that is the first documented example of this phenotype among mammals. Notably, β/δ82Lys→Asn moreover underlies the secondary evolution of a reduced blood-O2 affinity phenotype that would have promoted heightened tissue and maternal/fetal O2 delivery. This conclusion is bolstered by analyses of two Steller's sea cow prenatal Hb proteins (Hb Gower I; z2e2 and HbF; a2g2) that suggest an exclusive embryonic stage expression pattern, and reveal uncommon replacements in H. gigas HbF (g38Thr→Ile and g101Glu→Asp) that increased Hb-O2 affinity relative to dugong HbF. Finally, the β/δ82Lys→Asn replacement of the adult/fetal protein is shown to increase protein solubility, which may have elevated red blood cell Hb content within both the adult and fetal circulations and contributed to meeting the elevated metabolic (thermoregulatory) requirements and fetal growth rates associated with this species cold adaptation.