The Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRT) machinery mediates the membrane fission step that completes cytokinetic abscission and separates dividing cells. Filaments composed of ESCRT-III subunits constrict membranes of the intercellular bridge midbody to the abscission point. These filaments also bind and recruit cofactors whose activities help execute abscission and/or delay abscission timing in response to mitotic errors via the NoCut/Abscission checkpoint. We previously showed that the ESCRT-III subunit IST1 binds the cysteine protease CAPN7 (Calpain-7) and that CAPN7 is required for both efficient abscission and NoCut checkpoint maintenance (Wenzel et al., 2022). Here, we report biochemical and crystallographic studies showing that the tandem MIT domains of CAPN7 bind simultaneously to two distinct IST1 MIT interaction motifs. Structure-guided point mutations in either CAPN7 MIT domain disrupted IST1 binding in vitro and in cells, and depletion/rescue experiments showed that the CAPN7-IST1 interaction is required for: 1) CAPN7 recruitment to midbodies, 2) efficient abscission, and 3) NoCut checkpoint arrest. CAPN7 proteolytic activity is also required for abscission and checkpoint maintenance. Hence, IST1 recruits CAPN7 to midbodies, where its proteolytic activity is required to regulate and complete abscission.
X-Ray diffraction data were deposited in the PDB under accession code 8DFJ. NMR chemical shift assignments for IST1(303-366) are available at Biological Magnetic Resonance Bank (Accession no: 25393)(Caballe et al., 2015). All new plasmids generated for this study have been deposited at Addgene.
Calpain-7:IST1 complexPDB, 8DFJ.
- Katharine S Ullman
- Christopher P Hill
- Wesley I Sundquist
- Elliott L Paine
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- M Joanne Lemieux, University of Alberta, Canada
© 2023, Paine et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The canonical target of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), Protein Kinase A (PKA), has been shown to stimulate mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) by phosphorylating the mTOR-regulating protein Raptor at Ser791 following β-adrenergic stimulation. The objective of these studies is to test whether GLP-1R agonists similarly stimulate mTORC1 via PKA phosphorylation of Raptor at Ser791 and whether this contributes to the weight loss effect of the therapeutic GLP-1R agonist liraglutide. We measured phosphorylation of the mTORC1 signaling target ribosomal protein S6 in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells expressing GLP-1R (CHO-Glp1r) treated with liraglutide in combination with PKA inhibitors. We also assessed liraglutide-mediated phosphorylation of the PKA substrate RRXS*/T* motif in CHO-Glp1r cells expressing Myc-tagged wild-type (WT) Raptor or a PKA-resistant (Ser791Ala) Raptor mutant. Finally, we measured the body weight response to liraglutide in WT mice and mice with a targeted knock-in of PKA-resistant Ser791Ala Raptor. Liraglutide increased phosphorylation of S6 and the PKA motif in WT Raptor in a PKA-dependent manner but failed to stimulate phosphorylation of the PKA motif in Ser791Ala Raptor in CHO-Glp1r cells. Lean Ser791Ala Raptor knock-in mice were resistant to liraglutide-induced weight loss but not setmelanotide-induced (melanocortin-4 receptor-dependent) weight loss. Diet-induced obese Ser791Ala Raptor knock-in mice were not resistant to liraglutide-induced weight loss; however, there was weight-dependent variation such that there was a tendency for obese Ser791Ala Raptor knock-in mice of lower relative body weight to be resistant to liraglutide-induced weight loss compared to weight-matched controls. Together, these findings suggest that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Raptor at Ser791 contributes to liraglutide-induced weight loss.
Cylicins are testis-specific proteins, which are exclusively expressed during spermiogenesis. In mice and humans, two Cylicins, the gonosomal X-linked Cylicin 1 (Cylc1/CYLC1) and the autosomal Cylicin 2 (Cylc2/CYLC2) genes, have been identified. Cylicins are cytoskeletal proteins with an overall positive charge due to lysine-rich repeats. While Cylicins have been localized in the acrosomal region of round spermatids, they resemble a major component of the calyx within the perinuclear theca at the posterior part of mature sperm nuclei. However, the role of Cylicins during spermiogenesis has not yet been investigated. Here, we applied CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in zygotes to establish Cylc1- and Cylc2-deficient mouse lines as a model to study the function of these proteins. Cylc1 deficiency resulted in male subfertility, whereas Cylc2-/-, Cylc1-/yCylc2+/-, and Cylc1-/yCylc2-/- males were infertile. Phenotypical characterization revealed that loss of Cylicins prevents proper calyx assembly during spermiogenesis. This results in decreased epididymal sperm counts, impaired shedding of excess cytoplasm, and severe structural malformations, ultimately resulting in impaired sperm motility. Furthermore, exome sequencing identified an infertile man with a hemizygous variant in CYLC1 and a heterozygous variant in CYLC2, displaying morphological abnormalities of the sperm including the absence of the acrosome. Thus, our study highlights the relevance and importance of Cylicins for spermiogenic remodeling and male fertility in human and mouse, and provides the basis for further studies on unraveling the complex molecular interactions between perinuclear theca proteins required during spermiogenesis.