Natural rubber (NR) is stored in latex as rubber particles (RPs), rubber molecules surrounded by a lipid monolayer. Rubber transferase (RTase), the enzyme responsible for NR biosynthesis, is believed to be a member of the cis-prenyltransferase (cPT) family. However, none of the recombinant cPTs have shown RTase activity independently. We show that HRT1, a cPT from Hevea brasiliensis, exhibits distinct RTase activity in vitro only when it is introduced on detergent-washed Hevea RPs (WRPs) by a cell-free translation-coupled system. Using this system, a heterologous cPT from Lactuca sativa also exhibited RTase activity, indicating proper introduction of cPT on RP is the key to reconstitute active RTase. RP proteomics and interaction network analyses revealed the formation of the protein complex consisting of HRT1, RUBBER ELONGATION FACTOR (REF) and HRT1-REF BRIDGING PROTEIN. The RTase activity enhancement observed for the complex assembled on WRPs indicates the HRT1-containing complex functions as the NR biosynthetic machinery.
Hevea brasiliensis HRTBP mRNA for transferase binding protein,Publicly available at the DNA Data Bank of Japan (Accession no: LC057267).
Lactuca sativa cis-prenyltransferase 3 mRNA, complete cds.Publicly available at the NCBI Nucleotide (Accession no: F752488).
TSA: Hevea brasiliensis contigxxxxx, mRNA sequence.Publicly available at the NCBI BioProject (Accession no: PRJNA828950).
Lactuca sativa cis-prenyltransferase-like 2 mRNA, complete cdsPublicly available at the NCBI Nucleotide (Accession no: KF752485).
No external funding was received for this work.
- Kazunori Okada, University of Tokyo, Japan
© 2016, Yamashita et al.
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Dystroglycan (DG) requires extensive post-translational processing and O-glycosylation to function as a receptor for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins containing laminin-G-like (LG) domains. Matriglycan is an elongated polysaccharide of alternating xylose (Xyl) and glucuronic acid (GlcA) that binds with high-affinity to ECM proteins with LG-domains and is uniquely synthesized on α-dystroglycan (α-DG) by like-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-1 (LARGE1). Defects in the post-translational processing or O-glycosylation of α-DG that result in a shorter form of matriglycan reduce the size of α-DG and decrease laminin binding, leading to various forms of muscular dystrophy. Previously, we demonstrated that Protein O-Mannose Kinase (POMK) is required for LARGE1 to generate full-length matriglycan on α-DG (~150-250 kDa) (Walimbe et al., 2020). Here, we show that LARGE1 can only synthesize a short, non-elongated form of matriglycan in mouse skeletal muscle that lacks the DG N-terminus (α-DGN), resulting in a ~100-125 kDa α-DG. This smaller form of α-DG binds laminin and maintains specific force but does not prevent muscle pathophysiology, including reduced force production after eccentric contractions or abnormalities in the neuromuscular junctions. Collectively, our study demonstrates that α-DGN, like POMK, is required for LARGE1 to extend matriglycan to its full mature length on α-DG and thus prevent muscle pathophysiology.
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum synthesizes significant amounts of phospholipids to meet the demands of replication within red blood cells. De novo phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis via the Kennedy pathway is essential, requiring choline that is primarily sourced from host serum lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC). LysoPC also acts as an environmental sensor to regulate parasite sexual differentiation. Despite these critical roles for host lysoPC, the enzyme(s) involved in its breakdown to free choline for PC synthesis are unknown. Here, we show that a parasite glycerophosphodiesterase (PfGDPD) is indispensable for blood stage parasite proliferation. Exogenous choline rescues growth of PfGDPD-null parasites, directly linking PfGDPD function to choline incorporation. Genetic ablation of PfGDPD reduces choline uptake from lysoPC, resulting in depletion of several PC species in the parasite, whilst purified PfGDPD releases choline from glycerophosphocholine in vitro. Our results identify PfGDPD as a choline-releasing glycerophosphodiesterase that mediates a critical step in PC biosynthesis and parasite survival.