Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) derived tissues often remain developmentally immature in vitro, and become more adult-like in their structure, cellular diversity and function following transplantation into immunocompromised mice. Previously we have demonstrated that hPSC-derived human lung organoids (HLOs) resembled human fetal lung tissue in vitro (Dye et al. 2015). Here we show that HLOs required a bioartificial microporous Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) scaffold niche for successful engraftment, long-term survival, and maturation of lung epithelium in vivo. Analysis of scaffold-grown transplanted tissue showed airway-like tissue with enhanced epithelial structure and organization compared to HLOs grown in vitro. By further comparing in vitro and in vivo grown HLOs with fetal and adult human lung tissue, we found that in vivo transplanted HLOs had improved cellular differentiation of secretory lineages that is reflective of differences between fetal and adult tissue, resulting in airway-like structures that were remarkably similar to the native adult human lung.
- Jason R Spence
- Alyssa J Miller
- Alyssa J Miller
- Briana R Dye
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All work using human pluripotent stem cells was approved by the University of Michigan Human Pluiripotent Stem Cell Research Oversight Committee (HPSCRO, application #1054). All human tissue used in this work was falls under NIH Exemption 4. The tissue was not obtained from living individuals, and was de-identified. Since this work falls under NIH Exemption 4, it was given a "not regulated" status by the University of Michigan IRB (protocol # HUM00093465 and HUM00105750). All animal experiments were approved by the University of Michigan Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC; protocol # PRO00006609).
- Janet Rossant, University of Toronto, Canada
© 2016, Dye et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Transplanting bioengineered human lung organoids into mice could lead to a humanized model for pre-clinical studies of lung disease.
Reconstitution of germ cell fate from pluripotent stem cells provides an opportunity to understand the molecular underpinnings of germ cell development. Here, we established robust methods for pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) culture in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus, cj), allowing stable propagation in an undifferentiated state. Notably, iPSCs cultured on a feeder layer in the presence of a WNT signaling inhibitor upregulated genes related to ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic processes and enter a permissive state that enables differentiation into primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs) bearing immunophenotypic and transcriptomic similarities to pre-migratory cjPGCs in vivo. Induction of cjPGCLCs is accompanied by transient upregulation of mesodermal genes, culminating in the establishment of a primate specific germline transcriptional network. Moreover, cjPGCLCs can be expanded in monolayer while retaining the germline state. Upon co-culture with mouse testicular somatic cells, these cells acquire an early prospermatogonia-like phenotype. Our findings provide a framework for understanding and reconstituting marmoset germ cell development in vitro, thus providing a comparative tool and foundation for a preclinical modeling of human in vitro gametogenesis.