In the Caenorhabditis elegans germline, fem-3 Binding Factor (FBF) partners with LST-1 to maintain stem cells. A crystal structure of an FBF-2/LST-1/RNA complex revealed that FBF-2 recognizes a short RNA motif different from the characteristic 9-nt FBF binding element, and compact motif recognition coincided with curvature changes in the FBF-2 scaffold. Previously we engineered FBF-2 to favor recognition of shorter RNA motifs without curvature change (Bhat, Qiu, et al. 2019). In vitro selection of RNAs bound by FBF-2 suggested sequence specificity in the central region of the compact element. This bias, reflected in the crystal structure, was validated in RNA-binding assays. FBF-2 has the intrinsic ability to bind to this shorter motif. LST-1 weakens FBF-2 binding affinity for short and long motifs, which may increase target selectivity. Our findings highlight the role of FBF scaffold flexibility in RNA recognition and suggest a new mechanism by which protein partners refine target site selection.
Atomic coordinates and structure factors are deposited under RCSB PDB ID 6PUN. SEQRS sequence data are available through the Dryad Digital Repository, accession number doi:10.5061/dryad.30501q7.
SEQRS data for FBF-2 and SEQRS data for the LST-1 FBF-2 complexDryad Digital Repository, doi:10.5061/dryad.30501q7.
Crystal structure of a ternary complex of FBF-2 with LST-1 (site B) and compact FBE RNAProtein Data Bank, 6PUN.
The PUF binding landscape in metazoan germ cellsSupplemental Table S2.
- Traci M T Tanaka Hall
- Zachary T Campbell
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Timothy W Nilsen, Case Western Reserve University, United States
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
ANE syndrome is a ribosomopathy caused by a mutation in an RNA recognition motif of RBM28, a nucleolar protein conserved to yeast (Nop4). While patients with ANE syndrome have fewer mature ribosomes, it is unclear how this mutation disrupts ribosome assembly. Here we use yeast as a model system and show that the mutation confers growth and pre-rRNA processing defects. Recently, we found that Nop4 is a hub protein in the nucleolar large subunit (LSU) processome interactome. Here we demonstrate that the ANE syndrome mutation disrupts Nop4’s hub function by abrogating several of Nop4’s protein-protein interactions. Circular dichroism and NMR demonstrate that the ANE syndrome mutation in RRM3 of human RBM28 disrupts domain folding. We conclude that the ANE syndrome mutation generates defective protein folding which abrogates protein-protein interactions and causes faulty pre-LSU rRNA processing, thus revealing one aspect of the molecular basis of this human disease.
Gain-of-function mutations in the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 are the most frequently occurring mutations in sporadic juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) and JMML-like myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) associated with Noonan syndrome (NS). Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are the disease propagating cells of JMML. Here, we explored transcriptomes of HSPCs with SHP2 mutations derived from JMML patients and a novel NS zebrafish model. In addition to major NS traits, CRISPR/Cas9 knock-in Shp2D61G mutant zebrafish recapitulated a JMML-like MPN phenotype, including myeloid lineage hyperproliferation, ex vivo growth of myeloid colonies, and in vivo transplantability of HSPCs. Single-cell mRNA sequencing of HSPCs from Shp2D61G zebrafish embryos and bulk sequencing of HSPCs from JMML patients revealed an overlapping inflammatory gene expression pattern. Strikingly, an anti-inflammatory agent rescued JMML-like MPN in Shp2D61G zebrafish embryos. Our results indicate that a common inflammatory response was triggered in the HSPCs from sporadic JMML patients and syndromic NS zebrafish, which potentiated MPN and may represent a future target for JMML therapies.