The LINC complex mechanically couples cytoskeletal and nuclear components across the nuclear envelope to fulfil a myriad of cellular functions, including nuclear shape and positioning, hearing and meiotic chromosome movements. The canonical model is that 3:3 interactions between SUN and KASH proteins underlie the nucleocytoskeletal linkages provided by the LINC complex. Here, we provide crystallographic and biophysical evidence that SUN-KASH is a constitutive 6:6 complex in which two constituent 3:3 complexes interact head-to-head. A common SUN-KASH topology is achieved through structurally diverse 6:6 interaction mechanisms by distinct KASH proteins, including zinc-coordination by Nesprin-4. The SUN-KASH 6:6 interface provides a molecular mechanism for the establishment of integrative and distributive connections between 3:3 structures within a branched LINC complex network. In this model, SUN-KASH 6:6 complexes act as nodes for force distribution and integration between adjacent SUN and KASH molecules, enabling the coordinated transduction of large forces across the nuclear envelope.
Crystallographic structure factors and atomic coordinates have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) under accession numbers 6R15, 6R16 and 6R2I, and raw diffraction data have been uploaded to https://proteindiffraction.org/. SEC-SAXS data have been deposited in the Small Angle Scattering Biological Data Bank (https://www.sasbdb.org/) under accession numbers SASDJC5, SASDJD5, SASDJE5 and SASDJF5. Uncropped gel images relating to Figures 4b and 5a are available in source data files.
- Owen Richard Davies
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Megan C King, Yale School of Medicine, United States
© 2021, Gurusaran & Davies
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Rotaviruses transcribe eleven distinct RNAs that must be co-packaged prior to their replication to make an infectious virion. During infection, nontranslating rotavirus transcripts accumulate in cytoplasmic protein-RNA granules known as viroplasms that support segmented genome assembly and replication via a poorly understood mechanism. Here we analysed the RV transcriptome by combining DNA-barcoded smFISH of rotavirus-infected cells. Rotavirus RNA stoichiometry in viroplasms appears to be distinct from the cytoplasmic transcript distribution, with the largest transcript being the most enriched in viroplasms, suggesting a selective RNA enrichment mechanism. While all eleven types of transcripts accumulate in viroplasms, their stoichiometry significantly varied between individual viroplasms. Accumulation of transcripts requires the presence of 3' untranslated terminal regions and viroplasmic localisation of the viral polymerase VP1, consistent with the observed lack of polyadenylated transcripts in viroplasms. Our observations reveal similarities between viroplasms and other cytoplasmic RNP granules and identify viroplasmic proteins as drivers of viral RNA assembly during viroplasm formation.
The large intracellular C-terminus of the pro-inflammatory P2X7 ion channel receptor (P2X7R) is associated with diverse P2X7R-specific functions. Cryo-EM structures of the closed and ATP-bound open full-length P2X7R recently identified a membrane-associated anchoring domain, an open-state stabilizing “cap” domain, and a globular “ballast domain” containing GTP/GDP and dinuclear Zn2+-binding sites with unknown functions. To investigate protein dynamics during channel activation, we improved incorporation of the environment-sensitive fluorescent unnatural amino acid L-3-(6-acetylnaphthalen-2-ylamino)–2-aminopropanoic acid (ANAP) into Xenopus laevis oocyte-expressed P2X7Rs and performed voltage clamp fluorometry. While we confirmed predicted conformational changes within the extracellular and the transmembrane domains, only 3 out of 41 mutants containing ANAP in the C-terminal domain resulted in ATP-induced fluorescence changes. We conclude that the ballast domain functions rather independently from the extracellular ATP binding domain and might require activation by additional ligands and/or protein interactions. Novel tools to study these are presented.