The chloroplast proteome contains thousands of different proteins that are encoded by the nuclear genome. These proteins are imported into the chloroplast via the action of the TOC translocase and associated downstream systems. Our recent work has revealed that the stability of the TOC complex is dynamically regulated by the ubiquitin-dependent chloroplast-associated protein degradation (CHLORAD) pathway. Here, we demonstrate that the TOC complex is also regulated by the SUMO system. Arabidopsis mutants representing almost the entire SUMO conjugation pathway can partially suppress the phenotype of ppi1, a pale-yellow mutant lacking the Toc33 protein. This suppression is linked to increased abundance of TOC proteins and improvements in chloroplast development. Moreover, data from molecular and biochemical experiments support a model in which the SUMO system directly regulates TOC protein stability. Thus, we have identified a regulatory link between the SUMO system and the chloroplast protein import machinery.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- R Paul Jarvis
- Samuel Watson
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Heather E McFarlane, University of Toronto, Canada
© 2021, Watson et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) is a critical feature of meiotic prophase I progression in males. While the ATR kinase and its activator TOPBP1 are key drivers of MSCI within the specialized sex body (SB) domain of the nucleus, how they promote silencing remains unclear given their multifaceted meiotic functions that also include DNA repair, chromosome synapsis, and SB formation. Here we report a novel mutant mouse harboring mutations in the TOPBP1-BRCT5 domain. Topbp1B5/B5 males are infertile, with impaired MSCI despite displaying grossly normal events of early prophase I, including synapsis and SB formation. Specific ATR-dependent events are disrupted, including phosphorylation and localization of the RNA:DNA helicase Senataxin. Topbp1B5/B5 spermatocytes initiate, but cannot maintain ongoing, MSCI. These findings reveal a non-canonical role for the ATR-TOPBP1 signaling axis in MSCI dynamics at advanced stages in pachynema and establish the first mouse mutant that separates ATR signaling and MSCI from SB formation.
Intracellular levels of the amino acid aspartate are responsive to changes in metabolism in mammalian cells and can correspondingly alter cell function, highlighting the need for robust tools to measure aspartate abundance. However, comprehensive understanding of aspartate metabolism has been limited by the throughput, cost, and static nature of the mass spectrometry (MS)-based measurements that are typically employed to measure aspartate levels. To address these issues, we have developed a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based sensor of aspartate (jAspSnFR3), where the fluorescence intensity corresponds to aspartate concentration. As a purified protein, the sensor has a 20-fold increase in fluorescence upon aspartate saturation, with dose-dependent fluorescence changes covering a physiologically relevant aspartate concentration range and no significant off target binding. Expressed in mammalian cell lines, sensor intensity correlated with aspartate levels measured by MS and could resolve temporal changes in intracellular aspartate from genetic, pharmacological, and nutritional manipulations. These data demonstrate the utility of jAspSnFR3 and highlight the opportunities it provides for temporally resolved and high-throughput applications of variables that affect aspartate levels.