SARS-CoV-2 suppresses anticoagulant and fibrinolytic gene expression in the lung

  1. Alan E Mast
  2. Alisa S Wolberg
  3. David Gailani
  4. Michael R Garvin
  5. Christiane Alvarez
  6. J Izaak Miller
  7. Bruce Aronow
  8. Daniel Jacobson  Is a corresponding author
  1. Medical College of Wisconsin, United States
  2. UNC Blood Research Center, United States
  3. Vanderbilt University Medical Center, United States
  4. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, United States
  5. Cincinnati Children's Hospital Research Foundation, United States

Abstract

Extensive fibrin deposition in the lungs and altered levels of circulating blood coagulation proteins in COVID-19 patients imply local derangement of pathways that limit fibrin formation and/or promote its clearance. We examined transcriptional profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples to identify molecular mechanisms underlying these coagulopathies. mRNA levels for regulators of the kallikrein-kinin (C1-inhibitor), coagulation (thrombomodulin, endothelial protein C receptor), and fibrinolytic (urokinase and urokinase receptor) pathways were significantly reduced in COVID-19 patients. While transcripts for several coagulation proteins were increased, those encoding tissue factor, the protein that initiates coagulation and whose expression is frequently increased in inflammatory disorders, were not increased in BALF from COVID-19 patients. Our analysis implicates enhanced propagation of coagulation and decreased fibrinolysis as drivers of the coagulopathy in the lungs of COVID-19 patients.

Data availability

All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Data for control and COVID-19 bronchoalveolar lavage samples are available in the Sequence Read Archive at NCBI.

The following previously published data sets were used

Article and author information

Author details

  1. Alan E Mast

    Versiti Blood Research Institute, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, United States
    Competing interests
    Alan E Mast, receives research funding from Novo Nordisk and has received honoraria for serving on Novo Nordisk advisory boards..
  2. Alisa S Wolberg

    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UNC Blood Research Center, Chapel Hill, United States
    Competing interests
    Alisa S Wolberg, receives research funding from Takeda and Bristol Myers Squibb.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0002-2845-2303
  3. David Gailani

    3Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, United States
    Competing interests
    David Gailani, receives research funding from Bayer and has received honoraria for serving on Anthos, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Ionis and Janssen advisoryboards..
  4. Michael R Garvin

    Biosciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  5. Christiane Alvarez

    Biosciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  6. J Izaak Miller

    Biosciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  7. Bruce Aronow

    Biomedical Informatics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Research Foundation, Cincinnati, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  8. Daniel Jacobson

    Biosciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, United States
    For correspondence
    jacobsonda@ornl.gov
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0002-9822-8251

Funding

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (LOIS:10074)

  • Michael R Garvin
  • Christiane Alvarez
  • J Izaak Miller
  • Daniel Jacobson

National Institutes of Health (U24 HL148865)

  • Bruce Aronow

National Institutes of Health (HL068835)

  • Alan E Mast

National Institutes of Health (HL143403)

  • Alisa S Wolberg

National Institutes of Health (HL126974)

  • Alisa S Wolberg

National Institutes of Health (HL140025)

  • David Gailani

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.

Reviewing Editor

  1. Noriaki Emoto, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Japan

Version history

  1. Received: October 26, 2020
  2. Accepted: March 6, 2021
  3. Accepted Manuscript published: March 8, 2021 (version 1)
  4. Accepted Manuscript updated: March 9, 2021 (version 2)
  5. Version of Record published: April 15, 2021 (version 3)

Copyright

© 2021, Mast et al.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

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  1. Alan E Mast
  2. Alisa S Wolberg
  3. David Gailani
  4. Michael R Garvin
  5. Christiane Alvarez
  6. J Izaak Miller
  7. Bruce Aronow
  8. Daniel Jacobson
(2021)
SARS-CoV-2 suppresses anticoagulant and fibrinolytic gene expression in the lung
eLife 10:e64330.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.64330

Share this article

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.64330

Further reading

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    Edited by Diane M Harper et al.
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    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
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    Research Article

    Background:

    Comorbidity with type 2 diabetes (T2D) results in worsening of cancer-specific and overall prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The treatment of CRC per se may be diabetogenic. We assessed the impact of different types of surgical cancer resections and oncological treatment on risk of T2D development in CRC patients.

    Methods:

    We developed a population-based cohort study including all Danish CRC patients, who had undergone CRC surgery between 2001 and 2018. Using nationwide register data, we identified and followed patients from date of surgery and until new onset of T2D, death, or end of follow-up.

    Results:

    In total, 46,373 CRC patients were included and divided into six groups according to type of surgical resection: 10,566 Right-No-Chemo (23%), 4645 Right-Chemo (10%), 10,151 Left-No-Chemo (22%), 5257 Left-Chemo (11%), 9618 Rectal-No-Chemo (21%), and 6136 Rectal-Chemo (13%). During 245,466 person-years of follow-up, 2556 patients developed T2D. The incidence rate (IR) of T2D was highest in the Left-Chemo group 11.3 (95% CI: 10.4–12.2) per 1000 person-years and lowest in the Rectal-No-Chemo group 9.6 (95% CI: 8.8–10.4). Between-group unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) of developing T2D was similar and non-significant. In the adjusted analysis, Rectal-No-Chemo was associated with lower T2D risk (HR 0.86 [95% CI 0.75–0.98]) compared to Right-No-Chemo.

    For all six groups, an increased level of body mass index (BMI) resulted in a nearly twofold increased risk of developing T2D.

    Conclusions:

    This study suggests that postoperative T2D screening should be prioritised in CRC survivors with overweight/obesity regardless of type of CRC treatment applied.

    Funding:

    The Novo Nordisk Foundation (NNF17SA0031406); TrygFonden (101390; 20045; 125132).