Cancer survivors suffer from progressive frailty, multimorbidity and premature morbidity. We hypothesize that therapy-induced senescence and senescence progression via bystander effects is a significant cause of this premature ageing phenotype. Accordingly, the study addresses the question whether a short anti-senescence intervention is able to block progression of radiation-induced frailty and disability in a pre-clinical setting. Male mice were sub-lethally irradiated at 5 months of age and treated (or not) with either a senolytic drug (Navitoclax or dasatinib + quercetin) for 10 days or with the senostatic metformin for 10 weeks. Follow up was for one year. Treatments commencing within a month after irradiation effectively reduced frailty progression (p<0.05) and improved muscle (p<0.01) and liver (p<0.05) function as well as short-term memory (p<0.05) until advanced age with no need for repeated interventions. Senolytic interventions that started late, after radiation-induced premature frailty was manifest, still had beneficial effects on frailty (p<0.05) and short-term memory (p<0.05). Metformin was similarly effective as senolytics. At therapeutically achievable concentrations metformin acted as a senostatic neither via inhibition of mitochondrial complex I, nor via improvement of mitophagy or mitochondrial function, but by reducing non-mitochondrial ROS production via NOX4 inhibition in senescent cells. Our study suggests that the progression of adverse long-term health and quality-of-life effects of radiation exposure, as experienced by cancer survivors, might be rescued by short-term adjuvant anti-senescence interventions.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files; Source Data files have been provided for all Figures.
- Thomas von Zglinicki
- Thomas von Zglinicki
- Thomas von Zglinicki
- Satomi Miwa
- Viktor I Korolchuk
- Diana Jurk
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All animal experimentation was performed in compliance with the guiding principles for the care and use of laboratory animals (ARRIVE guidelines). The study was licenced by the UK Home Office (PB048F3A0)
- Carlos Isales, Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, United States
- Received: November 11, 2021
- Accepted: May 3, 2022
- Accepted Manuscript published: May 4, 2022 (version 1)
© 2022, Fielder et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Chemical manipulation of estrogen receptor alpha ligand binding domain structural mobility tunes receptor lifetime and influences breast cancer therapeutic activities. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) extend ERα cellular lifetime/accumulation. They are antagonists in the breast but agonists in the uterine epithelium and/or in bone. Selective estrogen receptor degraders/downregulators (SERDs) reduce ERα cellular lifetime/accumulation and are pure antagonists. Activating somatic ESR1 mutations Y537S and D538G enable resistance to first-line endocrine therapies. SERDs have shown significant activities in ESR1 mutant setting while few SERMs have been studied. To understand whether chemical manipulation of ERα cellular lifetime and accumulation influences antagonistic activity, we studied a series of methylpyrollidine lasofoxifene derivatives that maintained the drug's antagonistic activities while uniquely tuning ERα cellular accumulation. These molecules were examined alongside a panel of antiestrogens in live cell assays of ERα cellular accumulation, lifetime, SUMOylation, and transcriptional antagonism. High-resolution x-ray crystal structures of WT and Y537S ERα ligand binding domain in complex with the methylated lasofoxifene derivatives or representative SERMs and SERDs show that molecules that favor a highly buried helix 12 antagonist conformation achieve the greatest transcriptional suppression activities in breast cancer cells harboring WT/Y537S ESR1. Together these results show that chemical reduction of ERα cellular lifetime is not necessarily the most crucial parameter for transcriptional antagonism in ESR1 mutated breast cancer cells. Importantly, our studies show how small chemical differences within a scaffold series can provide compounds with similar antagonistic activities, but with greatly different effects of the cellular lifetime of the ERα, which is crucial for achieving desired SERM or SERD profiles.
Tyrosine phosphorylation, orchestrated by tyrosine kinases and phosphatases, modulates a multi-layered signaling network in a time- and space-dependent manner. Dysregulation of this post-translational modification is inevitably associated with pathological diseases. Our previous work has demonstrated that non-receptor tyrosine kinase FER is upregulated in ovarian cancer, knocking down which attenuates metastatic phenotypes. However, due to the limited number of known substrates in the ovarian cancer context, the molecular basis for its pro-proliferation activity remains enigmatic. Here, we employed mass spectrometry and biochemical approaches to identify insulin receptor substrate 4 (IRS4) as a novel substrate of FER. FER engaged its kinase domain to associate with the PH and PTB domains of IRS4. Using a proximity-based tagging system in ovarian carcinoma-derived OVCAR-5 cells, we determined that FER-mediated phosphorylation of Tyr779 enables IRS4 to recruit PIK3R2/p85β, the regulatory subunit of PI3K, and activate the PI3K-AKT pathway. Rescuing IRS4-null ovarian tumor cells with phosphorylation-defective mutant, but not WT IRS4 delayed ovarian tumor cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, we revealed a kinase-substrate mode between FER and IRS4, and the pharmacological inhibition of FER kinase may be beneficial for ovarian cancer patients with PI3K-AKT hyperactivation.