Cleavage of membrane proteins in the lipid bilayer by intramembrane proteases is crucial for health and disease. Although different lipid environments can potently modulate their activity, how this is linked to their structural dynamics is unclear. Here we show that the carboxy-peptidase-like activity of the archaeal intramembrane protease PSH, a homolog of the Alzheimer's disease-associated presenilin/γ-secretase is impaired in micelles and promoted in a lipid bilayer. Comparative molecular dynamics simulations revealed that important elements for substrate binding such as transmembrane domain 6a of PSH are more labile in micelles and stabilized in the lipid bilayer. Moreover, consistent with an enhanced interaction of PSH with a transition-state analog inhibitor, the bilayer promoted the formation of the enzyme´s catalytic active site geometry. Our data indicate that the lipid environment of an intramembrane protease plays a critical role in structural stabilization and active site arrangement of the enzyme-substrate complex thereby promoting intramembrane proteolysis.
For all figures the source data are provided in the respective source data files. The coordinate and trajectory files of all simulations can be accessed at Zenodo: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6487373
Recognition of the amyloid precursor protein by human γ-secretaseRCSB Protein Data Bank, 6IYC.
Structure of a presenilin family intramembrane aspartate proteaseRCSB Protein Data Bank, 4HYG.
- Martin Zacharias
- Harald Steiner
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- M Joanne Lemieux, University of Alberta, Canada
- Received: December 3, 2021
- Accepted: May 16, 2022
- Accepted Manuscript published: May 17, 2022 (version 1)
© 2022, Feilen et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Lactate oxidation with NAD+ as electron acceptor is a highly endergonic reaction. Some anaerobic bacteria overcome the energetic hurdle by flavin-based electron bifurcation/confurcation (FBEB/FBEC) using a lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) in concert with the electron-transferring proteins EtfA and EtfB. The electron cryo-microscopically characterized (Ldh-EtfAB)2 complex of Acetobacterium woodii at 2.43 Å resolution consists of a mobile EtfAB shuttle domain located between the rigid central Ldh and the peripheral EtfAB base units. The FADs of Ldh and the EtfAB shuttle domain contact each other thereby forming the D (dehydrogenation-connected) state. The intermediary Glu37 and Glu139 may harmonize the redox potentials between the FADs and the pyruvate/lactate pair crucial for FBEC. By integrating Alphafold2 calculations a plausible novel B (bifurcation-connected) state was obtained allowing electron transfer between the EtfAB base and shuttle FADs. Kinetic analysis of enzyme variants suggests a correlation between NAD+ binding site and D-to-B-state transition implicating a 75° rotation of the EtfAB shuttle domain. The FBEC inactivity when truncating the ferredoxin domain of EtfA substantiates its role as redox relay. Lactate oxidation in Ldh is assisted by the catalytic base His423 and a metal center. On this basis, a comprehensive catalytic mechanism of the FBEC process was proposed.
Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), ~100 of which are found in human cells, are proteases that remove ubiquitin conjugates from proteins, thereby regulating protein turnover. They are involved in a wide range of cellular activities and are emerging therapeutic targets for cancer and other diseases. Drugs targeting USP1 and USP30 are in clinical development for cancer and kidney disease respectively. However, the majority of substrates and pathways regulated by DUBs remain unknown, impeding efforts to prioritize specific enzymes for research and drug development. To assemble a knowledgebase of DUB activities, co-dependent genes, and substrates, we combined targeted experiments using CRISPR libraries and inhibitors with systematic mining of functional genomic databases. Analysis of the Dependency Map, Connectivity Map, Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, and multiple protein-protein interaction databases yielded specific hypotheses about DUB function, a subset of which were confirmed in follow-on experiments. The data in this paper are browsable online in a newly developed DUB Portal and promise to improve understanding of DUBs as a family as well as the activities of incompletely characterized DUBs (e.g. USPL1 and USP32) and those already targeted with investigational cancer therapeutics (e.g. USP14, UCHL5, and USP7).