Across bacteria, protein-based organelles called bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) encapsulate key enzymes to regulate their activities. The model BMC is the carboxysome that encapsulates enzymes for CO2 fixation to increase efficiency and is found in many autotrophic bacteria, such as cyanobacteria. Despite their importance in the global carbon cycle, little is known about how carboxysomes are spatially regulated. We recently identified the two-factor system required for the maintenance of carboxysome distribution (McdAB). McdA drives the equal spacing of carboxysomes via interactions with McdB, which associates with carboxysomes. McdA is a ParA/MinD ATPase, a protein family well-studied in positioning diverse cellular structures in bacteria. However, the adaptor proteins like McdB that connect these ATPases to their cargos are extremely diverse. In fact, McdB represents a completely unstudied class of proteins. Despite the diversity, many adaptor proteins undergo phase separation, but functional roles remain unclear. Here, we define the domain architecture of McdB from the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, and dissect its mode of biomolecular condensate formation. We identify an N-terminal intrinsically disordered region (IDR) that modulates condensate solubility, a central coiled-coil dimerizing domain that drives condensate formation, and a C-terminal domain that trimerizes McdB dimers and provides increased valency for condensate formation. We then identify critical basic residues in the IDR, which we mutate to glutamines to solubilize condensates. Finally, we find that a condensate-defective mutant of McdB has altered association with carboxysomes and influences carboxysome enzyme content. The results have broad implications for understanding spatial organization of BMCs and the molecular grammar of protein condensates.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting file.
- Anthony G Vecchiarelli
- Anthony G Vecchiarelli
The funders had no role in study design, data collection, and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Rohit V Pappu, Washington University in St Louis, United States
- Received: June 24, 2022
- Accepted: September 1, 2023
- Accepted Manuscript published: September 5, 2023 (version 1)
© 2023, Basalla et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Pancreatic a-cells secrete glucagon, an insulin counter-regulatory peptide hormone critical for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Investigation of the function of human a-cells remains a challenge due to the lack of cost-effective purification methods to isolate high-quality a-cells from islets. Here, we use the reaction-based probe diacetylated Zinpyr1 (DA-ZP1) to introduce a novel and simple method for enriching live a-cells from dissociated human islet cells with ~ 95% purity. The a-cells, confirmed by sorting and immunostaining for glucagon, were cultured up to 10 days to form a-pseudoislets. The a-pseudoislets could be maintained in culture without significant loss of viability, and responded to glucose challenge by secreting appropriate levels of glucagon. RNA-sequencing analyses (RNA-seq) revealed that expression levels of key a-cell identity genes were sustained in culture while some of the genes such as DLK1, GSN, SMIM24 were altered in a-pseudoislets in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, we report a method to sort human primary a-cells with high purity that can be used for downstream analyses such as functional and transcriptional studies.
Eukaryotic cells control inorganic phosphate to balance its role as essential macronutrient with its negative bioenergetic impact on reactions liberating phosphate. Phosphate homeostasis depends on the conserved INPHORS signaling pathway that utilizes inositol pyrophosphates and SPX receptor domains. Since cells synthesize various inositol pyrophosphates and SPX domains bind them promiscuously, it is unclear whether a specific inositol pyrophosphate regulates SPX domains in vivo, or whether multiple inositol pyrophosphates act as a pool. In contrast to previous models, which postulated that phosphate starvation is signaled by increased production of the inositol pyrophosphate 1-IP7, we now show that the levels of all detectable inositol pyrophosphates of yeast, 1-IP7, 5-IP7, and 1,5-IP8, strongly decline upon phosphate starvation. Among these, specifically the decline of 1,5-IP8 triggers the transcriptional phosphate starvation response, the PHO pathway. 1,5-IP8 inactivates the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Pho81 through its SPX domain. This stimulates the cyclin-dependent kinase Pho85-Pho80 to phosphorylate the transcription factor Pho4 and repress the PHO pathway. Combining our results with observations from other systems, we propose a unified model where 1,5-IP8 signals cytosolic phosphate abundance to SPX proteins in fungi, plants, and mammals. Its absence triggers starvation responses.