Bacteria of the genus Shigella cause shigellosis, a severe gastrointestinal disease driven by bacterial colonization of colonic intestinal epithelial cells. Vertebrates have evolved programmed cell death pathways that sense invasive enteric pathogens and eliminate their intracellular niche. Previously we reported that genetic removal of one such pathway, the NAIP-NLRC4 inflammasome, is sufficient to convert mice from resistant to susceptible to oral Shigella flexneri challenge (Mitchell et al., 2020). Here, we investigate the protective role of additional cell death pathways during oral mouse Shigella infection. We find that the Caspase-11 inflammasome, which senses Shigella LPS, restricts Shigella colonization of the intestinal epithelium in the absence of NAIP-NLRC4. However, this protection is limited when Shigella expresses OspC3, an effector that antagonizes Caspase-11 activity. TNFa, a cytokine that activates Caspase-8-dependent apoptosis, also provides potent protection from Shigella colonization of the intestinal epithelium when mice lack both NAIP-NLRC4 and Caspase-11. The combined genetic removal of Caspases-1,-11, and -8 renders mice hyper-susceptible to oral Shigella infection. Our findings uncover a layered hierarchy of cell death pathways that limit the ability of an invasive gastrointestinal pathogen to cause disease.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript or have been deposited with Dryad at https://doi.org/10.6078/D1S13W.
Data from: A hierarchy of cell death pathways confers layered resistance to shigellosis in miceDryad Digital Repository, doi:10.6078/D1S13W.
- Russell E Vance
- Russell E Vance
- Russell E Vance
- Russell E Vance
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (AUP-2014-09-6665-1) of the University of California Berkeley.
- Arturo Casadevall, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, United States
© 2023, Roncaioli et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Periodontitis, one of the most common non-communicable diseases, is characterized by chronic oral inflammation and uncontrolled tooth supporting alveolar bone resorption. Its underlying mechanism to initiate aberrant oral barrier immunity has yet to be delineated. Here, we report a unique fibroblast subpopulation activated to guide oral inflammation (AG fibroblasts) identified in a single-cell RNA sequencing gingival cell atlas constructed from the mouse periodontitis models. AG fibroblasts localized beneath the gingival epithelium and in the cervical periodontal ligament responded to the ligature placement and to the discrete topical application of Toll-like receptor stimulants to mouse maxillary tissue. The upregulated chemokines and ligands of AG fibroblasts linked to the putative receptors of neutrophils in the early stages of periodontitis. In the established chronic inflammation, neutrophils, together with AG fibroblasts, appeared to induce type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) that were the primary source of interleukin-17 cytokines. The comparative analysis of Rag2-/- and Rag2-/-Il2rg-/- mice suggested that ILC3 contributed to the cervical alveolar bone resorption interfacing the gingival inflammation. We propose the AG fibroblast–neutrophil–ILC3 axis as a previously unrecognized mechanism which could be involved in the complex interplay between oral barrier immune cells contributing to pathological inflammation in periodontitis.
Dendritic cells (DCs), the key antigen-presenting cells, are primary regulators of immune responses. Transcriptional regulation of DC development had been one of the major research interests in DC biology, however, the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms during DC development remains unclear. Here, we report that Histone deacetylase 3 (Hdac3), an important epigenetic regulator, is highly expressed in pDCs, and its deficiency profoundly impaired the development of pDCs. Significant disturbance of homeostasis of hematopoietic progenitors was also observed in HDAC3-deficient mice, manifested by altered cell numbers of these progenitors and defective differentiation potentials for pDCs. Using the in vitro Flt3L supplemented DC culture system, we further demonstrated that HDAC3 was required for the differentiation of pDCs from progenitors at all developmental stages. Mechanistically, HDAC3 deficiency resulted in enhanced expression of cDC1-associated genes, owing to markedly elevated H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac) at these gene sites in BM pDCs. In contrast, the expression of pDC-associated genes was significantly downregulated, leading to defective pDC differentiation.