Multistability and regime shifts are common and species diversity is high in microbial communities when nutrient supplies are balanced and competing species have different stoichiometries of essential nutrients.
The spatial interactions between humans, large carnivores and herbivores cascade down in a complex but predictable way to lower trophic levels affecting regeneration of tree species in a temperate forest.
Tool behaviour of long-tailed macaques leaves archaeological signatures that differ between populations despite similar ecological conditions, highlighting the potential for diversity in material culture.
Environmental transmission is atypical of symbionts that have undergone genome degradation, yet genetically reduced deep-sea anglerfish symbionts likely persist in the deep sea biome in search of a new host.
Sperm and egg development are temperature sensitive, enabling males and females to significantly improve their reproductive success by matching gamete function to varying thermal environments for fertilisation and offspring development.