An expanded GGGGCC hexanucleotide in C9ORF72 (C9) is the most frequent known cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). It has been proposed that expanded transcripts adopt G-quadruplex (G-Q) structures and associate with proteins, but whether this occurs and contributes to disease is unknown. Here we show first that the protein that predominantly associates with GGGGCC repeat RNA in vitro is the splicing factor hnRNP H, and that this interaction is linked to G-Q formation. We then show that G-Q RNA foci are more abundant in C9 ALS patient fibroblasts and astrocytes compared to those without the expansion, and more frequently colocalize with hnRNP H. Importantly, we demonstrate dysregulated splicing of multiple known hnRNP H-target transcripts in C9 patient brains, which correlates with elevated insoluble hnRNP H/G-Q aggregates. Together, our data implicate C9 expansion-mediated sequestration of hnRNP H as a significant contributor to neurodegeneration in C9 ALS/FTD.
Distinct brain transcriptome profiles in c9orf72-associated and sporadic ALSPublicly available at the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (accession no: GSE67196).
Illumina mRNA-Seq of control and hnRNP H knockdown in 293T cellsPublicly available at the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (accession no: GSE16642).
Analysis and design of RNA sequencing experiments for identifying mRNA isoform regulationPublicly available at the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (accession no: GSE23694).
- Erin G Conlon
- Neil A Shneider
- James L Manley
- James L Manley
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Human subjects: Informed consent, including consent to publish, was obtained for human derived fibroblast and astrocyte lines used in this study by the IRB of Columbia University under protocols #AAAB0483 and #AAAC1257. For fibroblasts, written consent was given by the patients, and for astrocytes, written consent was given by the families of the deceased. Human tissue was donated for research purposes by the next of kin.
- Douglas L Black, University of California, Los Angeles, United States
- Received: May 13, 2016
- Accepted: September 8, 2016
- Accepted Manuscript published: September 13, 2016 (version 1)
- Accepted Manuscript updated: September 14, 2016 (version 2)
- Accepted Manuscript updated: September 17, 2016 (version 3)
- Accepted Manuscript updated: September 21, 2016 (version 4)
- Version of Record published: October 4, 2016 (version 5)
- Version of Record updated: October 7, 2016 (version 6)
- Version of Record updated: October 10, 2016 (version 7)
© 2016, Conlon et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Mutations in the lever arm of β-cardiac myosin are a frequent cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a disease characterized by hypercontractility and eventual hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Here, we studied five such mutations: three in the pliant region of the lever arm (D778V, L781P, and S782N) and two in the light chain-binding region (A797T and F834L). We investigated their effects on both motor function and myosin subfragment 2 (S2) tail-based autoinhibition. The pliant region mutations had varying effects on the motor function of a myosin construct lacking the S2 tail: overall, D778V increased power output, L781P reduced power output, and S782N had little effect on power output, while all three reduced the external force sensitivity of the actin detachment rate. With a myosin containing the motor domain and the proximal S2 tail, the pliant region mutations also attenuated autoinhibition in the presence of filamentous actin but had no impact in the absence of actin. By contrast, the light chain-binding region mutations had little effect on motor activity but produced marked reductions in autoinhibition in both the presence and absence of actin. Thus, mutations in the lever arm of β-cardiac myosin have divergent allosteric effects on myosin function, depending on whether they are in the pliant or light chain-binding regions.
Chain-length specific subsets of diacylglycerol (DAG) lipids are proposed to regulate differential physiological responses ranging from signal transduction to modulation of the membrane properties. However, the mechanism or molecular players regulating the subsets of DAG species remains unknown. Here, we uncover the role of a conserved eukaryotic protein family, DISCO-interacting protein 2 (DIP2) as a homeostatic regulator of a chemically distinct subset of DAGs using yeast, fly and mouse models. Genetic and chemical screens along with lipidomics analysis in yeast reveal that DIP2 prevents the toxic accumulation of specific DAGs in the logarithmic growth phase, which otherwise leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress. We also show that the fatty acyl-AMP ligase-like domains of DIP2 are essential for the redirection of the flux of DAG subspecies to storage lipid, triacylglycerols. DIP2 is associated with vacuoles through mitochondria-vacuole contact sites and such modulation of selective DAG abundance by DIP2 is found to be crucial for optimal vacuole membrane fusion and consequently osmoadaptation in yeast. Thus, the study illuminates an unprecedented DAG metabolism route and provides new insights on how cell fine-tunes DAG subspecies for cellular homeostasis and environmental adaptation.