Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) represent two ends of a disease spectrum with shared clinical, genetic and pathological features. These include near ubiquitous pathological inclusions of the RNA binding protein (RBP) TDP-43, and often the presence of a GGGGCC expansion in the C9ORF72 (C9) gene. Previously we reported that the sequestration of hnRNP H altered the splicing of target transcripts in C9ALS patients (Conlon et al. 2016). Here we show that this signature also occurs in half of 50 post-mortem sporadic, non-C9 ALS/FTD brains. Furthermore, and equally surprisingly, these 'like-C9' brains also contained correspondingly high amounts of insoluble TDP-43, as well as several other disease-related RBPs, and this correlates with widespread global splicing defects. Finally, we show that the like-C9 sporadic patients, like actual C9ALS patients, were much more likely to have developed FTD. We propose that these unexpected links between C9 and sporadic ALS/FTD define a common mechanism in this disease spectrum.
All raw RNASeq data from Target ALS samples is immediately made publicly available. Access to the data can be requested by emailing ALSData@nygenome.org.All RNASeq data from the ALS Consortium is made immediately available to all members of the Consortium and with other Consortia with whom we have a reciprocal sharing arrangement. Data have been deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) (accession no. GSE116622). Data will be released upon acceptance.
- James L Manley
- Erin G Conlon
- Hemali Phatnani
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Human subjects: Human post-mortem brain samples were donated for research purposes by next of kin.
- Douglas L Black, University of California, Los Angeles, United States
© 2018, Conlon et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
New analyses shift the view that some forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia are due to defects in a single RNA-binding protein.
Lactate oxidation with NAD+ as electron acceptor is a highly endergonic reaction. Some anaerobic bacteria overcome the energetic hurdle by flavin-based electron bifurcation/confurcation (FBEB/FBEC) using a lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) in concert with the electron-transferring proteins EtfA and EtfB. The electron cryo-microscopically characterized (Ldh-EtfAB)2 complex of Acetobacterium woodii at 2.43 Å resolution consists of a mobile EtfAB shuttle domain located between the rigid central Ldh and the peripheral EtfAB base units. The FADs of Ldh and the EtfAB shuttle domain contact each other thereby forming the D (dehydrogenation-connected) state. The intermediary Glu37 and Glu139 may harmonize the redox potentials between the FADs and the pyruvate/lactate pair crucial for FBEC. By integrating Alphafold2 calculations a plausible novel B (bifurcation-connected) state was obtained allowing electron transfer between the EtfAB base and shuttle FADs. Kinetic analysis of enzyme variants suggests a correlation between NAD+ binding site and D-to-B-state transition implicating a 75° rotation of the EtfAB shuttle domain. The FBEC inactivity when truncating the ferredoxin domain of EtfA substantiates its role as redox relay. Lactate oxidation in Ldh is assisted by the catalytic base His423 and a metal center. On this basis, a comprehensive catalytic mechanism of the FBEC process was proposed.