Nuclear entry of HIV-1 replication complexes through intact nuclear pore complexes is critical for successful infection. The host protein cleavage-and-polyadenylation-specificity-factor-6 (CPSF6) has been implicated in different stages of early HIV-1 replication. Applying quantitative microscopy of HIV-1 reverse-transcription and pre-integration-complexes (RTC/PIC), we show that CPSF6 is strongly recruited to nuclear replication complexes but absent from cytoplasmic RTC/PIC in primary human macrophages. Depletion of CPSF6 or lack of CPSF6 binding led to accumulation of HIV-1 subviral complexes at the nuclear envelope of macrophages and reduced infectivity. Two-color stimulated-emission-depletion microscopy indicated that under these circumstances HIV-1 complexes are retained inside the nuclear pore and undergo CA-multimer dependent CPSF6 clustering adjacent to the nuclear basket. We propose that nuclear entry of HIV-1 subviral complexes in macrophages is mediated by consecutive binding of Nup153 and CPSF6 to the hexameric CA lattice.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files for the plots of Figures 1,3,4 and supplemental material are provided.
- Barbara Müller
- Hans-Georg Kräusslich
- Hans-Georg Kräusslich
- Hans-Georg Kräusslich
- David Alejandro Bejarano
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Wesley I Sundquist, University of Utah School of Medicine, United States
© 2019, Bejarano et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Unbiased genetic screens implicated a number of uncharacterized genes in hearing loss, suggesting some biological processes required for auditory function remain unexplored. Loss of Kiaa1024L/Minar2, a previously understudied gene, caused deafness in mice, but how it functioned in the hearing was unclear. Here, we show that disruption of kiaa1024L/minar2 causes hearing loss in the zebrafish. Defects in mechanotransduction, longer and thinner hair bundles, and enlarged apical lysosomes in hair cells are observed in the kiaa1024L/minar2 mutant. In cultured cells, Kiaa1024L/Minar2 is mainly localized to lysosomes, and its overexpression recruits cholesterol and increases cholesterol labeling. Strikingly, cholesterol is highly enriched in the hair bundle membrane, and loss of kiaa1024L/minar2 reduces cholesterol localization to the hair bundles. Lowering cholesterol levels aggravates, while increasing cholesterol levels rescues the hair cell defects in the kiaa1024L/minar2 mutant. Therefore, cholesterol plays an essential role in hair bundles, and Kiaa1024L/Minar2 regulates cholesterol distribution and homeostasis to ensure normal hearing.
MicroRNAs (miRNA) and other components contained in extracellular vesicles may reflect the presence of a disease. Lung tissue, sputum, and sera of individuals with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) show alterations in miRNA expression. We designed this study to test whether urine and/or tissue derived exosomal miRNAs from individuals with IPF carry cargo that can promote fibrosis.
Exosomes were isolated from urine (U-IPFexo), lung tissue myofibroblasts (MF-IPFexo), serum from individuals with IPF (n=16) and age/sex-matched controls without lung disease (n=10). We analyzed microRNA expression of isolated exosomes and their in vivo bio-distribution. We investigated the effect on ex vivo skin wound healing and in in vivo mouse lung models.
U-IPFexo or MF-IPFexo expressed miR-let-7d, miR-29a-5p, miR-181b-3p and miR-199a-3p consistent with previous reports of miRNA expression obtained from lung tissue/sera from patients with IPF. In vivo bio-distribution experiments detected bioluminescent exosomes in the lung of normal C57Bl6 mice within 5 min after intravenous infusion, followed by distribution to other organs irrespective of exosome source. Exosomes labeled with gold nanoparticles and imaged by transmission electron microscopy were visualized in alveolar epithelial type I and type II cells. Treatment of human and mouse lung punches obtained from control, non-fibrotic lungs with either U-IPFexo or MF-IPFexo produced a fibrotic phenotype. A fibrotic phenotype was also induced in a human ex vivo skin model and in in vivo lung models.
Our results provide evidence of a systemic feature of IPF whereby exosomes contain pro-fibrotic miRNAs when obtained from a fibrotic source and interfere with response to tissue injury as measured in skin and lung models.
This work was supported in part by Lester and Sue Smith Foundation and The Samrick Family Foundation and NIH grants R21 AG060338 (SE and MKG), U01 DK119085 (IP, RS, MTC).