Acid-sensing ion channels have important functions in physiology and pathology, but the molecular composition of acid-activated chloride channels had remained unclear. We now used a genome-wide siRNA screen to molecularly identify the widely expressed acid-sensitive outwardly-rectifying anion channel PAORAC/ASOR. ASOR is formed by TMEM206 proteins which display two transmembrane domains (TMs) and are expressed at the plasma membrane. Ion permeation-changing mutations along the length of TM2 and at the end of TM1 suggest that these segments line ASOR’s pore. While not belonging to a gene family, TMEM206 has orthologs in probably all vertebrates. Currents from evolutionarily distant orthologs share activation by protons, a feature essential for ASOR’s role in acid-induced cell death. TMEM206 defines a novel class of ion channels. Its identification will help to understand its physiological roles and the diverse ways by which anion-selective pores can be formed.
- Thomas J Jentsch
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Reinhard Jahn, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Germany
© 2019, Ullrich et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
The selective autophagy pathways of xenophagy and mitophagy are initiated when the adaptor NDP52 recruits the ULK1 complex to autophagic cargo. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) was used to map the membrane and NDP52 binding sites of the ULK1 complex to unique regions of the coiled coil of the FIP200 subunit. Electron microscopy of the full-length ULK1 complex shows that the FIP200 coiled coil projects away from the crescent-shaped FIP200 N-terminal domain dimer. NDP52 allosterically stimulates membrane-binding by FIP200 and the ULK1 complex by promoting a more dynamic conformation of the membrane-binding portion of the FIP200 coiled coil. Giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) reconstitution confirmed that membrane recruitment by the ULK1 complex is triggered by NDP52 engagement. These data reveal how the allosteric linkage between NDP52 and the ULK1 complex could drive the first membrane recruitment event of phagophore biogenesis in xenophagy and mitophagy.
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that must precisely control their protein composition according to cellular energy demand. Although nuclear-encoded mRNAs can be localized to the mitochondrial surface, the importance of this localization is unclear. As yeast switch to respiratory metabolism, there is an increase in the fraction of the cytoplasm that is mitochondrial. Our data point to this change in mitochondrial volume fraction increasing the localization of certain nuclear-encoded mRNAs to the surface of the mitochondria. We show that mitochondrial mRNA localization is necessary and sufficient to increase protein production to levels required during respiratory growth. Furthermore, we find that ribosome stalling impacts mRNA sensitivity to mitochondrial volume fraction and counterintuitively leads to enhanced protein synthesis by increasing mRNA localization to mitochondria. This points to a mechanism by which cells are able to use translation elongation and the geometric constraints of the cell to fine-tune organelle-specific gene expression through mRNA localization.