Cholinergic fast time-scale modulation of cortical physiology is critical for cognition, but direct local measurement of neuromodulators in vivo is challenging. Choline oxidase (ChOx)-based electrochemical biosensors have been used to capture fast cholinergic signals in behaving animals. However, these transients might be biased by local field potential and O2-evoked enzymatic responses. Using a novel Tetrode-based Amperometric ChOx (TACO) sensor we performed highly sensitive and selective simultaneous measurement of ChOx activity (COA) and O2. In vitro and in vivo experiments, supported by mathematical modeling, revealed that non-steady-state enzyme responses to O2 give rise to phasic COA dynamics. This mechanism accounts for most of COA transients in the hippocampus, including those following locomotion bouts and sharp-wave/ripples Our results suggest that it is unfeasible to probe phasic cholinergic signals under most behavioral paradigms with current ChOx biosensors. This confound is generalizable to any oxidase-based biosensor, entailing rigorous controls and new biosensor designs.
- Anton Sirota
- Anton Sirota
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All experimental procedures were established, and have been approved in accordance with the stipulations of the German animal welfare law (Tierschutzgesetz )(ROB-55.2-2532.Vet_02-16-170).
- Tianyi Mao, Oregon Health and Science University, United States
- Received: August 9, 2020
- Accepted: February 12, 2021
- Accepted Manuscript published: February 15, 2021 (version 1)
© 2021, Santos & Sirota
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.