After HIV-1 has reached the cytoplasm of the host cell (1), reverse transcription begins within the virus capsid, which is still intact: viral RNA in shown in blue, and the newly synthesized viral DNA is shown in red. Reverse transcription continues as the capsid passes through the nuclear pore complex (2) and into the nucleus (3). Once the process of reverse transcription has been completed, the forces exerted by the double-stranded DNA (double red lines) compromise the structural integrity of the capsid, creating a gap through which the DNA can escape (4) and go on to be integrated in the DNA of the host cell (not shown). The breakdown of the capsid and release of the DNA is referred to as uncoating. Integration occurs in chromatin (solid black line) near nuclear speckles (speckle-associated domains) and away from nuclear lamina (lamina-associated domains). It is currently unclear if there are similar preferred sites for uncoating.