The process wherein dividing cells exhaust proliferative capacity and enter into replicative senescence has become a prominent model for cellular aging in vitro. Despite decades of study, this cellular state is not fully understood in culture and even much less so during aging. Here, we revisit Leonard Hayflick’s original observation of replicative senescence in WI-38 human lung fibroblasts equipped with a battery of modern techniques including RNA-seq, single cell RNA-seq, proteomics, metabolomics, and ATAC-seq. We find evidence that the transition to a senescent state manifests early, increases gradually, and corresponds to a concomitant global increase in DNA accessibility in nucleolar and lamin associated domains. Furthermore, we demonstrate that senescent WI-38 cells acquire a striking resemblance to myofibroblasts in a process similar to the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) that is regulated by the transcription factors YAP1/TEAD1 and TGF-𝛽2. Lastly, we show that verteporfin inhibition of YAP1/TEAD1 activity in aged WI-38 cells robustly attenuates this gene expression program.
Sequencing data have been deposited in GEO under accession code GSE175533.Proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository under accession code EBI PRIDECode for processing and analyzing data modalities have been deposited at https://github.com/dghendrickson/hayflickSource data for figures and analysis have been deposited at https://github.com/dghendrickson/hayflick and/or uploaded as source data files.
Revisiting the Hayflick Limit: Insights from an Integrated Analysis of Changing Transcripts, Proteins, Metabolites, and ChromatinCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE175533.
Transcriptome analysis of oxdative-stress induced senescence in human astrocytesNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE58910.
Mapping of nucleolus-associated chromosomal domains during replicative senescence.NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE78043.
Redistribution of the Lamin B1 genomic binding profile affects spatial rearrangement of heterochromatic domains and gene expression during senescenceNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE49341.
The authors are employed by Calico Sciences, and no external funding was received.
- Weiwei Dang, Baylor College of Medicine, United States
© 2022, Chan et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Alternative polyadenylation yields many mRNA isoforms whose 3' termini occur disproportionately in clusters within 3' UTRs. Previously, we showed that profiles of poly(A) site usage are regulated by the rate of transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase (Pol) II (Geisberg et., 2020). Pol II derivatives with slow elongation rates confer an upstream-shifted poly(A) profile, whereas fast Pol II strains confer a downstream-shifted poly(A) profile. Within yeast isoform clusters, these shifts occur steadily from one isoform to the next across nucleotide distances. In contrast, the shift between clusters from the last isoform of one cluster to the first isoform of the next - is much less pronounced, even over large distances. GC content in a region 13-30 nt downstream from isoform clusters correlates with their sensitivity to Pol II elongation rate. In human cells, the upstream shift caused by a slow Pol II mutant also occurs continuously at the nucleotide level within clusters, but not between them. Pol II occupancy increases just downstream of the most speed-sensitive poly(A) sites, suggesting a linkage between reduced elongation rate and cluster formation. These observations suggest that 1) Pol II elongation speed affects the nucleotide-level dwell time allowing polyadenylation to occur, 2) poly(A) site clusters are linked to the local elongation rate and hence do not arise simply by intrinsically imprecise cleavage and polyadenylation of the RNA substrate, 3) DNA sequence elements can affect Pol II elongation and poly(A) profiles, and 4) the cleavage/polyadenylation and Pol II elongation complexes are spatially, and perhaps physically, coupled so that polyadenylation occurs rapidly upon emergence of the nascent RNA from the Pol II elongation complex.
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA modification impacts mRNA fate primarily via reader proteins, which dictate processes in development, stress, and disease. Yet little is known about m6A function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which occurs solely during early meiosis. Here we perform a multifaceted analysis of the m6A reader protein Pho92/Mrb1. Cross-linking immunoprecipitation analysis reveals that Pho92 associates with the 3’end of meiotic mRNAs in both an m6A-dependent and independent manner. Within cells, Pho92 transitions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and associates with translating ribosomes. In the nucleus Pho92 associates with target loci through its interaction with transcriptional elongator Paf1C. Functionally, we show that Pho92 promotes and links protein synthesis to mRNA decay. As such, the Pho92-mediated m6A-mRNA decay is contingent on active translation and the CCR4-NOT complex. We propose that the m6A reader Pho92 is loaded co-transcriptionally to facilitate protein synthesis and subsequent decay of m6A modified transcripts, and thereby promotes meiosis.