The acidic luminal pH of lysosomes, maintained within a narrow range, is essential for proper degrative function of the organelle and is generated by the action of a V-type H+ ATPase, but other pathways for ion movement are required to dissipate the voltage generated by this process. ClC-7, a Cl-/H+ antiporter responsible for lysosomal Cl- permeability, is a candidate to contribute to the acidification process as part of this 'counterion pathway'. The signaling lipid PI(3,5)P2 modulates lysosomal dynamics, including by regulating lysosomal ion channels, raising the possibility that it could contribute to lysosomal pH regulation. Here we demonstrate that depleting PI(3,5)P2 by inhibiting the PIKfyve kinase causes lysosomal hyperacidification, primarily via an effect on ClC-7. We further show that PI(3,5)P2 directly inhibits ClC-7 transport and that this inhibition is eliminated in a disease-causing gain-of-function ClC-7 mutation. Together these observations suggest an intimate role for ClC-7 in lysosomal pH regulation.
All analyzed data are included in the manuscript
- Xavier Leray
- Jacob K Hilton
- Kamsi Nwangwu
- Alissa Becerril
- Vedrana Mikusevic
- Gabriel Fitzgerald
- Anowarul Amin
- Mary R Weston
- Joseph A Mindell
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Merritt Maduke, Stanford University School of Medicine, United States
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
Microtubules are dynamic polymers consisting of αβ-tubulin heterodimers. The initial polymerization process, called microtubule nucleation, occurs spontaneously via αβ-tubulin. Since a large energy barrier prevents microtubule nucleation in cells, the γ-tubulin ring complex is recruited to the centrosome to overcome the nucleation barrier. However, a considerable number of microtubules can polymerize independently of the centrosome in various cell types. Here, we present evidence that the minus-end-binding calmodulin-regulated spectrin-associated protein 2 (CAMSAP2) serves as a strong nucleator for microtubule formation by significantly reducing the nucleation barrier. CAMSAP2 co-condensates with αβ-tubulin via a phase separation process, producing plenty of nucleation intermediates. Microtubules then radiate from the co-condensates, resulting in aster-like structure formation. CAMSAP2 localizes at the co-condensates and decorates the radiating microtubule lattices to some extent. Taken together, these in vitro findings suggest that CAMSAP2 supports microtubule nucleation and growth by organizing a nucleation centre as well as by stabilizing microtubule intermediates and growing microtubules.
Langerhans cells are specialized antigen-presenting cells localized within the epidermis and mucosal epithelium. Upon contact with Langerhans cells, pathogens are captured by the C-type lectin langerin and internalized into a structurally unique vesicle known as a Birbeck granule. Although the immunological role of Langerhans cells and Birbeck granules have been extensively studied, the mechanism by which the characteristic zippered membrane structure of Birbeck granules is formed remains elusive. In this study, we observed isolated Birbeck granules using cryo-electron tomography and reconstructed the 3D structure of the repeating unit of the honeycomb lattice of langerin at 6.4 Å resolution. We found that the interaction between the two langerin trimers was mediated by docking the flexible loop at residues 258-263 into the secondary carbohydrate-binding cleft. Mutations within the loop inhibited Birbeck granule formation and the internalization of HIV pseudovirus. These findings suggest a molecular mechanism for membrane zippering during Birbeck granule biogenesis and provide insight into the role of langerin in the defense against viral infection.