The encapsidation of HIV-1 genomic RNA into virions is enabled by the binding of the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein to the structured viral RNA packaging signal (Ψ) at the 5' end of the viral genome. However, the subcellular location and oligomeric status of Gag during the initial Gag-Ψ encounter remains uncertain. Domains other than NC, such as capsid (CA), may therefore indirectly affect RNA recognition. To investigate the contribution of Gag domains to Ψ recognition in a cellular environment, we performed protein-protein crosslinking and protein-RNA crosslinking immunoprecipitation coupled with sequencing (CLIP-seq) experiments. We demonstrate that NC alone does not bind specifically to Ψ in living cells, whereas full-length Gag and a CANC subdomain bind to Ψ with high specificity. Perturbation of the Ψ RNA structure or NC zinc fingers affected CANC:Ψ binding specificity. Notably, CANC variants with substitutions that disrupt CA:CA dimer, trimer or hexamer interfaces in the immature Gag lattice also affected RNA binding, and mutants that were unable to assemble a nascent Gag lattice were unable to specifically bind to Ψ. Artificially multimerized NC domains did not specifically bind Ψ. CA variants with substitutions in inositol phosphate coordinating residues that prevent CA hexamerization were also deficient in Ψ binding and second-site revertant mutants that restored CA assembly also restored specific binding to Ψ. Overall, these data indicate that the correct assembly of a nascent immature CA lattice is required for the specific interaction between Gag and Ψ in cells.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and accompanying source data files
- Paul D Bieniasz
- Paul D Bieniasz
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Guangxia Gao, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
- Received: September 18, 2022
- Accepted: January 20, 2023
- Accepted Manuscript published: January 23, 2023 (version 1)
© 2023, Lei et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Oral inflammatory diseases such as apical periodontitis are common bacterial infectious diseases that may affect the periapical alveolar bone tissues. A protective process occurs simultaneously with the inflammatory tissue destruction, in which mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a primary role. However, a systematic and precise description of the cellular and molecular composition of the microenvironment of bone affected by inflammation is lacking. In this study, we created a single cell atlas of cell populations that compose alveolar bone in healthy and inflammatory disease states. We investigated changes in expression frequency and patterns related to apical periodontitis, as well as the interactions between MSCs and immunocytes. Our results highlight an enhanced self-supporting network and osteogenic potential within MSCs during apical periodontitis-associated inflammation. MSCs not only differentiated towards osteoblast lineage cells, but also expressed higher levels of osteogenic related markers, including Sparc and Col1a1. This was confirmed by lineage tracing in transgenic mouse models and human samples from oral inflammatory-related alveolar bone lesions. In summary, the current study provides an in-depth description of the microenvironment of MSCs and immunocytes in both healthy and disease states. We also identified key apical periodontitis-associated MSC subclusters and their biomarkers, which could further our understanding of the protective process and the underlying mechanisms of oral inflammatory-related bone disease. Taken together, these results enhance our understanding of heterogeneity and cellular interactions of alveolar bone cells under pathogenic and inflammatory conditions. We provide these data as a tool for investigators not only to better appreciate the repertoire of progenitors that are stress responsive but importantly to help design new therapeutic targets to restore bone lesions caused by apical periodontitis and other inflammatory-related bone diseases.
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum synthesizes significant amounts of phospholipids to meet the demands of replication within red blood cells. De novo phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis via the Kennedy pathway is essential, requiring choline that is primarily sourced from host serum lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC). LysoPC also acts as an environmental sensor to regulate parasite sexual differentiation. Despite these critical roles for host lysoPC, the enzyme(s) involved in its breakdown to free choline for PC synthesis are unknown. Here, we show that a parasite glycerophosphodiesterase (PfGDPD) is indispensable for blood stage parasite proliferation. Exogenous choline rescues growth of PfGDPD-null parasites, directly linking PfGDPD function to choline incorporation. Genetic ablation of PfGDPD reduces choline uptake from lysoPC, resulting in depletion of several PC species in the parasite, whilst purified PfGDPD releases choline from glycerophosphocholine in vitro. Our results identify PfGDPD as a choline-releasing glycerophosphodiesterase that mediates a critical step in PC biosynthesis and parasite survival.