RNA molecules cause the proteins involved in the formation of germ granules to coalesce into liquid droplets.
The embryo of any organism that reproduces sexually must develop germ cells, such as those that go on to become egg and sperm cells in animals. This is because these are the only cells that are destined to transfer genetic material to the next generation. One characteristic of developing germ cells is the presence of particles termed “germ granules” (Voronina et al., 2011). Made from various RNA and protein molecules, these granules are believed to regulate the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules inside the germ cells during development (Seydoux and Braun, 2006).
Many of the components that are found in germ granules are conserved between distantly related species. Studies in this area have commonly involved the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, which, like other animals, starts life as a single fertilized egg or zygote. At first, germ granules are spread uniformly throughout this cell. However, as the zygote starts to develop a distinct front and back, the germ granules are only found in the back of the zygote: this is why the germ granules in C. elegans are called P granules (with “P” being short for the P lineage of cells that forms at the posterior). This process is repeated during further cell divisions, such that the P granules continue to segregate into those cells that will eventually give rise to the germ cells. Now, in eLife, Geraldine Seydoux and colleagues at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine – including Jarrett Smith as first author – report how two RNA-binding proteins with opposing effects control where P granules form (Smith et al., 2016).
Early explanations as to why P granules segregated asymmetrically were based on the idea that they were actively transported to the posterior half. However, a few years ago, it was noted that proteins found in germ granules could spontaneously de-mix from the cytoplasm and coalesce to form germ granules (Brangwynne et al., 2009). This phenomenon, called a phase transition, resembles how oil droplets form when oil is mixed with water. However, only the granules that formed in the posterior of the zygote were stable in C. elegans, and any granules that started to form in the front half disappeared instead.
P granules only grow in the posterior, in part, because a gradient of RNA-binding proteins somehow restricts where they can form (Griffin et al., 2011; Schubert et al., 2000). This raises some questions: how is a protein gradient transformed into an on-off switch for P granule formation? And what triggers the phase transition so that P granules are only stable in the posterior?
Some proteins in germ granules contain “intrinsically disordered regions” that lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure (Kato et al., 2012; Courchaine et al., 2016; Hyman et al., 2014). Smith et al. now demonstrate that two intrinsically disordered, RNA-binding proteins – namely MEG-3 and its homolog MEG-4 – lie at the heart of P granule formation, and that MEG-3 is essential for germ granules to nucleate. In vitro, MEG-3 will spontaneously assemble into aggregates, but only at concentrations higher than those found in the zygote (Figure 1). However, Smith et al. discovered that this phase transition was enhanced when RNA is present. As such, simply varying the RNA levels in a test tube or in the zygote can change when and where P granules form. Smith et al. also showed that another RNA-binding protein called MEX-5 (which is not a component of P granules) competes with MEG-3 for access to the RNA, and that the high concentrations of MEX-5 at the front end of the zygote prevent P granules being formed there (Figure 1).
A recent theoretical study in C. elegans proposed a similar mechanism, with MEX-5 and a P granule protein called PGL-3 competing to bind to mRNA molecules (Saha et al., 2016). However, Smith et al. show that PGL-3 is not essential for the nucleation of P granules, and that it is not needed to establish the asymmetric distribution of granules either. It is therefore more likely that MEG-3 forms a critical scaffold for the P granule and then recruits other P granule proteins, including PGL-3 (Hanazawa et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2014).
MEX-5 and MEG-3 bind to RNA with little specificity (Pagano et al., 2007; Smith et al., 2016), but the adaptor proteins found in germ cells might make it possible for these proteins to bind to different sets of mRNAs (Weidmann et al., 2016). This selective binding could establish a gradient of specific mRNAs that runs from the front to the back of the zygote, with critical mRNAs being captured at the end of the cell that goes on to become the germ cells (Gallo et al., 2010; Lehmann, 2016; Seydoux and Braun, 2006).
RNA-protein granules are widespread in nature. They are, in fact, found in every cell in the human body, and likely regulate RNAs in many different ways (Couchrane, et al., 2016). Phase transitions might drive the formation of these other granules too, similar to P granule formation in C. elegans. These granules often contain RNA-binding proteins with intrinsically disordered regions and are also enriched with RNAs (Han et al., 2012; Lin et al., 2015; Schwartz et al., 2013; Teixeira et al., 2005; Zhang et al., 2015). As such, many of them may likewise rely on RNAs to form. The new mechanism reported by Smith et al. could explain how a variety of RNA-protein granules end up sorted into different areas of the cell, even though they share multiple components.
PGL proteins self associate and bind RNPs to mediate germ granule assembly in C. elegansThe Journal of Cell Biology 192:929–937.https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201010106
Liquid-liquid phase separation in biologyAnnual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology 30:39–58.https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-cellbio-100913-013325
Germ plasm biogenesis--An oskar-centric perspectiveCurrent Topics in Developmental Biology 116:679–707.https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.ctdb.2015.11.024
Molecular basis of RNA recognition by the embryonic polarity determinant MEX-5Journal of Biological Chemistry 282:8883–8894.https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M700079200
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
Feedback control is a universal feature of cell signaling pathways. Naked/NKD is a widely conserved feedback regulator of Wnt signaling which controls animal development and tissue homeostasis. Naked/NKD destabilizes Dishevelled, which assembles Wnt signalosomes to inhibit the β-catenin destruction complex via recruitment of Axin. Here, we discover that the molecular mechanism underlying Naked/NKD function relies on its assembly into ultra-stable decameric core aggregates via its conserved C-terminal histidine cluster (HisC). HisC aggregation is facilitated by Dishevelled and depends on accumulation of Naked/NKD during prolonged Wnt stimulation. Naked/NKD HisC cores co-aggregate with a conserved histidine cluster within Axin, to destabilize it along with Dishevelled, possibly via the autophagy receptor p62, which binds to HisC aggregates. Consistent with this, attenuated Wnt responses are observed in CRISPR-engineered flies and human epithelial cells whose Naked/NKD HisC has been deleted. Thus, HisC aggregation by Naked/NKD provides context-dependent feedback control of prolonged Wnt responses.
Engineered allosteric regulation of protein activity provides significant advantages for the development of robust and broadly applicable tools. However, the application of allosteric switches in optogenetics has been scarce and suffers from critical limitations. Here, we report an optogenetic approach that utilizes an engineered Light-Regulated (LightR) allosteric switch module to achieve tight spatiotemporal control of enzymatic activity. Using the tyrosine kinase Src as a model, we demonstrate efficient regulation of the kinase and identify temporally distinct signaling responses ranging from seconds to minutes. LightR-Src off-kinetics can be tuned by modulating the LightR photoconversion cycle. A fast cycling variant enables the stimulation of transient pulses and local regulation of activity in a selected region of a cell. The design of the LightR module ensures broad applicability of the tool, as we demonstrate by achieving light-mediated regulation of Abl and bRaf kinases as well as Cre recombinase.