The human gastrointestinal tract is immature at birth, yet must adapt to dramatic changes such as oral nutrition and microbial colonization. The confluence of these factors can lead to severe inflammatory disease in premature infants; however, investigating complex environment-host interactions is difficult due to limited access to immature human tissue. Here, we demonstrate that the epithelium of human pluripotent stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids is globally similar to the immature human epithelium and we utilize HIOs to investigate complex host-microbe interactions in this naïve epithelium. Our findings demonstrate that the immature epithelium is intrinsically capable of establishing a stable host-microbe symbiosis. Microbial colonization leads to complex contact and hypoxia driven responses resulting in increased antimicrobial peptide production, maturation of the mucus layer, and improved barrier function. These studies lay the groundwork for an improved mechanistic understanding of how colonization influences development of the immature human intestine.
- Vincent B Young
- Jason R Spence
- David R Hill
- David R Hill
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All animal experiments were approved by the University of Michigan Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC; protocol # PRO00006609).
Human subjects: Normal, de-identified human fetal intestinal tissue was obtained from the University of Washington Laboratory of Developmental Biology. Normal, de-identified human adult intestinal issue was obtained from deceased organ donors through the Gift of Life, Michigan. All human tissue used in this work was obtained from non-living donors, was de-identified and was conducted with approval from the University of Michigan IRB (protocol # HUM00093465 and HUM00105750).
- Andrew J MacPherson, Reviewing Editor, University of Bern, Switzerland
- Received: May 31, 2017
- Accepted: October 29, 2017
- Accepted Manuscript published: November 7, 2017 (version 1)
© 2017, Hill et al.
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