The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most widespread human pathogens known today, yet its origin and evolutionary history are still unclear and controversial. Here, we report the analysis of three ancient HBV genomes recovered from human skeletons found at three different archaeological sites in Germany. We reconstructed two Neolithic and one medieval HBV genomes by de novo assembly from shotgun DNA sequencing data. Additionally, we observed HBV-specific peptides using paleo-proteomics. Our results show that HBV circulates in the European population for at least 7000 years. The Neolithic HBV genomes show a high genomic similarity to each other. In a phylogenetic network, they do not group with any human-associated HBV genome and are most closely related to those infecting African non-human primates. These ancient virus forms appear to represent distinct lineages that have no close relatives today and possibly went extinct. Our results reveal the great potential of ancient DNA from human skeletons in order to study the long-time evolution of blood borne viruses.
- Johannes Krause
- Kurt W Alt
- Harald Meller
- Ben Krause-Kyora
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Human subjects: Our human remains used are prehistoric European specimens. No consent from them can be required. No decedent groups claim responsibility or ancestry to those people.
- Stephen Locarnini, Reviewing Editor, Doherty Institute, Australia
- Received: March 14, 2018
- Accepted: May 9, 2018
- Accepted Manuscript published: May 10, 2018 (version 1)
© 2018, Krause-Kyora et al.
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