Macaques were fed either Western or Mediterranean-like diets, and the gene expression of their monocytes was profiled. The proportion of pro-inflammatory genes being activated was then computed (shown in graph). This revealed that genes overexpressed in the Mediterranean-like diet (represented by the olive branch) were less likely than chance (marked as zero) to be pro-inflammatory (data shown in green). Genes that were highly expressed in the monocytes of monkeys fed a Western-like diet (represented by the piece of meat) were more likely than expected by chance to be pro-inflammatory (data shown in red). The gene classification was based on prior direct comparisons of pro-inflammatory and regulatory monocytes (Schmidl et al., 2014).
Image credit: Data adapted from Johnson et al., 2021 (CC BY 4.0).