The scaffold protein PSD-95 links postsynaptic receptors to sites of presynaptic neurotransmitter release. Flexible linkers between folded domains in PSD-95 enable a dynamic supertertiary structure. Interdomain interactions within the PSG supramodule, formed by PDZ3, SH3 and Guanylate Kinase domains, regulate PSD-95 activity. Here we combined Discrete Molecular Dynamics and single molecule FRET to characterize the PSG supramodule, with time resolution spanning picoseconds to seconds. We used a FRET network to measure distances in full-length PSD-95 and model the conformational ensemble. We found that PDZ3 samples two conformational basins, which we confirmed with disulfide mapping. To understand effects on activity, we measured binding of the synaptic adhesion protein neuroligin. We found that PSD-95 bound neuroligin well at physiological pH while truncated PDZ3 bound poorly. Our hybrid structural models reveal how the supertertiary context of PDZ3 enables recognition of this critical synaptic ligand.
Datasets of FRET values from smTIRF have been uploaded as Figure 4-Source Data 1. The MATLAB scripts used to analyze smTIRF data have been uploaded as Source Code 1. Datasets from Confocal Microscopy with Multiparameter Fluorescence Detection (Raw, MFD Bursts, TCSPC, PDA, and FCS), along with structures used in generating simulated distances and DMD screening, are available at Zenodo (DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6983428). Datasets from Discrete Molecular Dynamics are available at https://dlab.clemson.edu/research/PSD95-PSG/.
- Mark E Bowen
- Hugo Sanabria
- Feng Ding
- Hugo Sanabria
- Feng Ding
- George L Hamilton
- Claus AM Seidel
- Hugo Sanabria
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Mary B Kennedy, California Institute of Technology, United States
- Received: January 21, 2022
- Accepted: September 6, 2022
- Accepted Manuscript published: September 7, 2022 (version 1)
© 2022, Hamilton et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
We created a new nonhuman primate model of the genetic neurodegenerative disorder Huntington’s disease (HD) by injecting a mixture of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors, serotypes AAV2 and AAV2.retro, each expressing a fragment of human mutant HTT (mHTT) into the caudate and putamen of adult rhesus macaques. This modeling strategy results in expression of mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) and aggregate formation in the injected brain regions, as well as dozens of other cortical and subcortical brain regions affected in human HD patients. We queried the disruption of cortico-basal ganglia circuitry for 30 months post-surgery using a variety of behavioral and imaging readouts. Compared to controls, mHTT-treated macaques developed working memory decline and progressive motor impairment. Multimodal imaging revealed circuit-wide white and gray matter degenerative processes in several key brain regions affected in HD. Taken together, we have developed a novel macaque model of HD that may be used to develop disease biomarkers and screen promising therapeutics.
Motherhood induces a drastic, sometimes long-lasting, change in internal state and behavior in many female animals. How a change in reproductive state or the discrete event of mating modulates specific female behaviors is still incompletely understood. Using calcium imaging of the whole brain of Drosophila females, we find that mating does not induce a global change in brain activity. Instead, mating modulates the pheromone response of dopaminergic neurons innervating the fly’s learning and memory center, the mushroom body (MB). Using the mating-induced increased attraction to the odor of important nutrients, polyamines, we show that disruption of the female fly’s ability to smell, for instance the pheromone cVA, during mating leads to a reduction in polyamine preference for days later indicating that the odor environment at mating lastingly influences female perception and choice behavior. Moreover, dopaminergic neurons including innervation of the β’1 compartment are sufficient to induce the lasting behavioral increase in polyamine preference. We further show that MB output neurons (MBON) of the β’1 compartment are activated by pheromone odor and their activity during mating bidirectionally modulates preference behavior in mated and virgin females. Their activity is not required, however, for the expression of polyamine attraction. Instead, inhibition of another type of MBON innervating the β’2 compartment enables expression of high odor attraction. In addition, the response of a lateral horn (LH) neuron, AD1b2, which output is required for the expression of polyamine attraction, shows a modulated polyamine response after mating. Taken together, our data in the fly suggests that mating-related sensory experience regulates female odor perception and expression of choice behavior through a dopamine-gated learning circuit.