Type I Interferon (IFN-I)-mediated antiviral responses are central to host defense against viral infections. Crucial is the tight and well-orchestrated control of cellular decision-making leading to the production of IFN-Is. Innovative single-cell approaches revealed that the initiation of IFN-I production is limited to only fractions of 1-3% of the total population, both found in vitro, in vivo, and across cell types, which were thought to be stochastically regulated. To challenge this dogma, we addressed the influence of various stochastic and deterministic host-intrinsic factors on dictating early IFN-I responses, using a murine fibroblast reporter model. Epigenetic drugs influenced the percentage of responding cells. Next, with the classical Luria-Delbrück fluctuation test, we provided evidence for transient heritability driving responder fates, which was verified with mathematical modeling. Finally, while studying varying cell-densities, we substantiated an important role for cell density in dictating responsiveness, similar to the phenomenon of quorum sensing. Together, this systems immunology approach opens up new avenues to progress the fundamental understanding on cellular decision-making during early IFN-I responses, which can be translated to other (immune) signaling systems.
The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article are available on DataDryad
Raw Data TotalDryad Digital Repository, doi:10.5061/dryad.2547d7wtz.
- Jurjen Tel
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Ahmad S Khalil, Boston University, United States
- Received: August 30, 2022
- Accepted: January 10, 2023
- Accepted Manuscript published: January 11, 2023 (version 1)
© 2023, Van Eyndhoven et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Meiotic chromosome segregation relies on synapsis and crossover recombination between homologous chromosomes. These processes require multiple steps that are coordinated by the meiotic cell cycle and monitored by surveillance mechanisms. In diverse species, failures in chromosome synapsis can trigger a cell cycle delay and/or lead to apoptosis. How this key step in 'homolog engagement' is sensed and transduced by meiotic cells is unknown. Here we report that in C. elegans, recruitment of the Polo-like kinase PLK-2 to the synaptonemal complex triggers phosphorylation and inactivation of CHK-2, an early meiotic kinase required for pairing, synapsis, and double-strand break induction. Inactivation of CHK-2 terminates double-strand break formation and enables crossover designation and cell cycle progression. These findings illuminate how meiotic cells ensure crossover formation and accurate chromosome segregation.
Motile cilia are hair-like cell extensions that beat periodically to generate fluid flow along various epithelial tissues within the body. In dense multiciliated carpets, cilia were shown to exhibit a remarkable coordination of their beat in the form of traveling metachronal waves, a phenomenon which supposedly enhances fluid transport. Yet, how cilia coordinate their regular beat in multiciliated epithelia to move fluids remains insufficiently understood, particularly due to lack of rigorous quantification. We combine experiments, novel analysis tools, and theory to address this knowledge gap. To investigate collective dynamics of cilia, we studied zebrafish multiciliated epithelia in the nose and the brain. We focused mainly on the zebrafish nose, due to its conserved properties with other ciliated tissues and its superior accessibility for non-invasive imaging. We revealed that cilia are synchronized only locally and that the size of local synchronization domains increases with the viscosity of the surrounding medium. Even though synchronization is local only, we observed global patterns of traveling metachronal waves across the zebrafish multiciliated epithelium. Intriguingly, these global wave direction patterns are conserved across individual fish, but different for left and right nose, unveiling a chiral asymmetry of metachronal coordination. To understand the implications of synchronization for fluid pumping, we used a computational model of a regular array of cilia. We found that local metachronal synchronization prevents steric collisions, cilia colliding with each other, and improves fluid pumping in dense cilia carpets, but hardly affects the direction of fluid flow. In conclusion, we show that local synchronization together with tissue-scale cilia alignment coincide and generate metachronal wave patterns in multiciliated epithelia, which enhance their physiological function of fluid pumping.