Loop extrusion by structural maintenance of chromosomes complexes (SMCs) has been proposed as a mechanism to organize chromatin in interphase and metaphase. However, the requirements for chromatin organization in these cell cycle phases are different, and it is unknown whether loop extrusion dynamics and the complexes that extrude DNA also differ. Here, we used Xenopus egg extracts to reconstitute and image loop extrusion of single DNA molecules during the cell cycle. We show that loops form in both metaphase and interphase, but with distinct dynamic properties. Condensin extrudes DNA loops non-symmetrically in metaphase, whereas cohesin extrudes loops symmetrically in interphase. Our data show that loop extrusion is a general mechanism underlying DNA organization, with dynamic and structural properties that are biochemically regulated during the cell cycle.
- Jan Brugués
- Thomas Quail
- Stefan Golfier
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: Animal experimentation: All animals were handled according to the directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes, and the german animal welfare law under the license document number DD24-5131/367/9 from the Landesdirektion Sachsen (Dresden) - Section 24D.
- Job Dekker, University of Massachusetts Medical School, United States
- Received: November 22, 2019
- Accepted: May 11, 2020
- Accepted Manuscript published: May 12, 2020 (version 1)
© 2020, Golfier et al.
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