The yeast THO complex is recruited to active genes and interacts with the RNA-dependent ATPase Sub2 to facilitate the formation of mature export-competent mRNPs and to prevent the co-transcriptional formation of RNA:DNA-hybrid-containing structures. How THO-containing complexes function at the mechanistic level is unclear. Here, we elucidated a 3.4Å resolution structure of S. cerevisiae THO-Sub2 by cryo-electron microscopy. THO subunits Tho2 and Hpr1 intertwine to form a platform that is bound by Mft1, Thp2, and Tex1. The resulting complex homodimerizes in an asymmetric fashion, with a Sub2 molecule attached to each protomer. The homodimerization interfaces serve as a fulcrum for a seesaw-like movement concomitant with conformational changes of the Sub2 ATPase. The overall structural architecture and topology suggest the molecular mechanisms of nucleic acid remodeling during mRNA biogenesis.
- Elena Conti
- Elena Conti
- Elena Conti
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Karsten Weis, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
- Received: July 27, 2020
- Accepted: November 13, 2020
- Accepted Manuscript published: November 16, 2020 (version 1)
© 2020, Schuller et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
SARM1, an executor of axonal degeneration, displays NADase activity that depletes the key cellular metabolite, NAD+, in response to nerve injury. The basis of SARM1 inhibition and its activation under stress conditions are still unknown. Here, we present cryo-EM maps of SARM1 at 2.9 and 2.7 Å resolutions. These indicate that SARM1 homo-octamer avoids premature activation by assuming a packed conformation, with ordered inner and peripheral rings, that prevents dimerization and activation of the catalytic domains. This inactive conformation is stabilized by binding of SARM1’s own substrate NAD+ in an allosteric location, away from the catalytic sites. This model was validated by mutagenesis of the allosteric site, which led to constitutively active SARM1. We propose that the reduction of cellular NAD+ concentration contributes to the disassembly of SARM1's peripheral ring, which allows formation of active NADase domain dimers, thereby further depleting NAD+ to cause an energetic catastrophe and cell death.
DNA viruses in the family Poxviridae encode poxin enzymes that degrade the immune second messenger 2′3′-cGAMP to inhibit cGAS-STING immunity in mammalian cells. The closest homologs of poxin exist in the genomes of insect viruses suggesting a key mechanism of cGAS-STING evasion may have evolved outside of mammalian biology. Here we use a biochemical and structural approach to discover a broad family of 369 poxins encoded in diverse viral and animal genomes and define a prominent role for 2′3′-cGAMP cleavage in metazoan host-pathogen conflict. Structures of insect poxins reveal unexpected homology to flavivirus proteases and enable identification of functional self-cleaving poxins in RNA-virus polyproteins. Our data suggest widespread 2′3′-cGAMP signaling in insect antiviral immunity and explain how a family of cGAS-STING evasion enzymes evolved from viral proteases through gain of secondary nuclease activity. Poxin acquisition by poxviruses demonstrates the importance of environmental connections in shaping evolution of mammalian pathogens.