Timeline of changes in spike conformational dynamics in emergent SARS-CoV-2 variants reveal progressive stabilization of trimer stalk with altered NTD dynamics
SARS-CoV-2 emergent variants are characterized by increased viral fitness and each shows multiple mutations predominantly localized to the spike (S) protein. Here, amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry has been applied to track changes in S dynamics from multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants. Our results highlight large differences across variants at two loci with impacts on S dynamics and stability. A significant enhancement in stabilization first occurred with the emergence of D614G S followed by smaller, progressive stabilization in subsequent variants. Stabilization preceded altered dynamics in the N-terminal domain, wherein Omicron BA.1 S showed the largest magnitude increases relative to other preceding variants. Changes in stabilization and dynamics resulting from S mutations detail the evolutionary trajectory of S in emerging variants. These carry major implications for SARS-CoV-2 viral fitness and offer new insights into variant-specific therapeutic development.
We have made raw files, ProteinLynx Global Server 3.0 search outputs, and Dynamx files used for HDXMS analysis available through ProteomeXchange. The dataset can be found in the PRIDE repository with identifier PXD040717.
Article and author information
No external funding was received for this work.
- Rina Rosenzweig, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
- Received: August 10, 2022
- Preprint posted: August 29, 2022 (view preprint)
- Accepted: February 16, 2023
- Accepted Manuscript published: March 17, 2023 (version 1)
© 2023, Braet et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
- Page views
Article citation count generated by polling the highest count across the following sources: Crossref, PubMed Central, Scopus.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
Cite this article (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
- Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
Mutations within Ras proteins represent major drivers in human cancer. In this study, we report the structure-based design, synthesis, as well as biochemical and cellular evaluation of nucleotide-based covalent inhibitors for KRasG13C, an important oncogenic mutant of Ras that has not been successfully addressed in the past. Mass spectrometry experiments and kinetic studies reveal promising molecular properties of these covalent inhibitors, and X-ray crystallographic analysis has yielded the first reported crystal structures of KRasG13C covalently locked with these GDP analogues. Importantly, KRasG13C covalently modified with these inhibitors can no longer undergo SOS-catalysed nucleotide exchange. As a final proof-of-concept, we show that in contrast to KRasG13C, the covalently locked protein is unable to induce oncogenic signalling in cells, further highlighting the possibility of using nucleotide-based inhibitors with covalent warheads in KRasG13C-driven cancer.
- Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
- Cancer Biology
Cancer secretome is a reservoir for aberrant glycosylation. How therapies alter this post- translational cancer hallmark and the consequences thereof remain elusive. Here we show that an elevated secretome fucosylation is a pan-cancer signature of both response and resistance to multiple targeted therapies. Large-scale pharmacogenomics revealed that fucosylation genes display widespread association with resistance to these therapies. In cancer cell cultures, xenograft mouse models, and patients, targeted kinase inhibitors distinctively induced core fucosylation of secreted proteins less than 60 kDa. Label-free proteomics of N-glycoproteomes identified fucosylation of the antioxidant PON1 as a critical component of the therapy-induced secretome (TIS). N-glycosylation of TIS and target core fucosylation of PON1 are mediated by the fucose salvage-FUT8-SLC35C1 axis with PON3 directly modulating GDP-Fuc transfer on PON1 scaffolds. Core fucosylation in the Golgi impacts PON1 stability and folding prior to secretion, promoting a more degradation-resistant PON1. Global and PON1-specific secretome de-N-glycosylation both limited the expansion of resistant clones in a tumor regression model. We defined the resistance-associated transcription factors (TFs) and genes modulated by the N-glycosylated TIS via a focused and transcriptome-wide analyses. These genes characterize the oxidative stress, inflammatory niche, and unfolded protein response as important factors for this modulation. Our findings demonstrate that core fucosylation is a common modification indirectly induced by targeted therapies that paradoxically promotes resistance.