January 2014

Research articles

    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Crystal structures of virus-like photosystem I complexes from the mesophilic cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803

    Yuval Mazor et al.
    The structure of the photosystem I (PSI) complex from Synechocystis is determined, and reaction center subunits engineered to resemble a viral PSI are found to promote promiscuous electron acceptor properties.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Single-molecule tracking of the transcription cycle by sub-second RNA detection

    Zhengjian Zhang et al.
    A new technique called fastFISH enables nearly real-time and stoichiometric detection of nascent RNA and the tracking of individual stages of transcription at the level of single-molecules.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    pH- and sodium-induced changes in a sodium/proton antiporter

    Cristina Paulino, Werner Kühlbrandt
    Sodium ions but not protons induce defined helix movements in a sodium/proton antiporter and suggest a mechanism for Na + binding and transport.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Cell type-specific and time-dependent light exposure contribute to silencing in neurons expressing Channelrhodopsin-2

    Alexander M Herman et al.
    Optogenetic techniques, whereby light is used to activate neuronal cells, are quickly becoming widely used in neuroscience; but excessive exposure to light can actually silence certain types of neuronal cells.
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    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Earlier menarche is associated with a higher prevalence of Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2) in young women in rural Malawi

    Judith R Glynn et al.
    Earlier menarche leads to earlier sex, marriage, and sexually transmitted infections, so is a serious disadvantage to the life chances of a young woman.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Single-molecule analysis reveals self assembly and nanoscale segregation of two distinct cavin subcomplexes on caveolae

    Yann Gambin et al.
    New insights into the assembly and membrane interactions of the caveolar coat complex reveal the reversible association/dissociation of distinct subcomplexes onto the membrane, which differs from the assembly/disassembly of clathrin-coated pits.
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    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Plant Biology

    A secreted Ustilago maydis effector promotes virulence by targeting anthocyanin biosynthesis in maize

    Shigeyuki Tanaka et al.
    A fungal effector secreted by the corn smut pathogen increases the virulence of the pathogen by elevating anthocyanin production and reducing lignification in maize.
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    1. Biophysics and structural biology

    How HIV-1 Nef hijacks the AP-2 clathrin adaptor to downregulate CD4

    Xuefeng Ren et al.
    The structure of the Nef:AP-2 complex has been determined and used as the basis of a model that explains how HIV-1 Nef downregulates the CD4 receptor from the surface of the infected cells.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Activation-triggered subunit exchange between CaMKII holoenzymes facilitates the spread of kinase activity

    Margaret Stratton et al.
    Activation of CaMKII holoenzymes triggers the exchange of subunits with other holoenzymes, including unactivated ones, enabling the calcium-independent phosphorylation and activation of new subunits.
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    1. Genes and Chromosomes
    2. Neuroscience

    The splicing regulator PTBP2 controls a program of embryonic splicing required for neuronal maturation

    Qin Li et al.
    PTBP2 ensures that adult protein variants are expressed only in mature neurons through regulation of alternative splicing during early neuronal development.
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    1. Ecology

    Extinction risk and conservation of the world’s sharks and rays

    Nicholas K Dulvy et al.
    One-quarter of the Chondrichthyes have an elevated risk of extinction, mainly as a result of overfishing.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Computation identifies structural features that govern neuronal firing properties in slowly adapting touch receptors

    Daine R Lesniak et al.
    Computer simulations show that the firing patterns of branched touch receptors can be set in part by the organization of their sensory endings in the skin.
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    1. Neuroscience

    A diversity of localized timescales in network activity

    Rishidev Chaudhuri et al.
    Specific types of heterogeneity in the connectivity profile of a biological network give rise to dynamics with a hierarchy of localized temporal scales.
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Modes of flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Trypanosoma brucei

    Johanna L Höög et al.
    Comparative electron tomography of growing flagellar tips reveals that axonemal growth differs between short and long flagella, and between species.
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    1. Cell Biology

    p97-dependent retrotranslocation and proteolytic processing govern formation of active Nrf1 upon proteasome inhibition

    Senthil K Radhakrishnan et al.
    The enzyme p97/VCP regulates the activity of the transcription factor Nrf1 to promote increased transcription of genes that encode proteasome subunits following inhibition of the proteasome.
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    1. Immunology

    T cell immunodominance is dictated by the positively selecting self-peptide

    Wan-Lin Lo et al.
    The T cell repertoire can display immunodominance to an epitope as a result of optimal positive selection in the thymus by one self-peptide/MHC ligand.
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Coordinated genomic control of ciliogenesis and cell movement by RFX2

    Mei-I Chung et al.
    Systems-level analysis in vertebrate ciliated epithelial cells shows that the network of genes activated by the transcription factor Rfx2 controls the development, migration, insertion and function of these cells.
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    1. Cell Biology

    USP13 antagonizes gp78 to maintain functionality of a chaperone in ER-associated degradation

    Yanfen Liu et al.
    A deubiquitinase antagonizes the activity of an associated E3 ligase to prevent uncontrolled ubiquitination of a degradation machinery protein and thus maintain its functionality in protein quality control at the endoplasmic reticulum.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Pro-social behavior in rats is modulated by social experience

    Inbal Ben-Ami Bartal et al.
    Rats show socially selective helping behavior based on familiarity with the type of rat, but not necessarily the individual rat.
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    1. Ecology
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Evolution of thorax architecture in ant castes highlights trade-off between flight and ground behaviors

    Roberto A Keller et al.
    Body shape and behavioural specializations found across the castes of ant species evolved together and reflect different abilities for ground behaviors.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Mouse rods signal through gap junctions with cones

    Sabrina Asteriti et al.
    Electrophysiological recordings show that cones in the eyes of mice are able to receive strong input from rods via gap junctions, supporting the view that this route plays an important role in vision.
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