October 2014

Research articles

    1. Cell Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    General principles for the formation and proliferation of a wall-free (L-form) state in bacteria

    Romain Mercier et al
    A wide range of bacterial species can switch into a cell wall-free state that does not require the FtsZ-based division machinery to proliferate.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Amygdala neural activity reflects spatial attention towards stimuli promising reward or threatening punishment

    Christopher J Peck, C Daniel Salzman
    Primate amygdala neurons provide a coordinated representation of space and motivational significance whereby amygdala responses to visual stimuli predicting either rewards or aversive stimuli could influence spatial attention in a similar manner.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Real-time observation of signal recognition particle binding to actively translating ribosomes

    Thomas R Noriega et al
    The signal recognition particle only stably engages translating ribosome nascent-chain complexes exposing a functional signal sequence.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Identification of motor neurons and a mechanosensitive sensory neuron in the defecation circuitry of Drosophila larvae

    Wei Zhang et al
    The neural circuit underlying defecation behavior in Drosophila larvae has been identified and characterized.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Transient nuclear Prospero induces neural progenitor quiescence

    Sen-Lin Lai, Chris Q Doe
    A low-level pulse of the nuclear Prospero protein is necessary and sufficient to cause neural progenitor cells to enter a quiescent state.
    Short Report
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    1. Cell Biology

    The role of IMP dehydrogenase 2 in Inauhzin-induced ribosomal stress

    Qi Zhang et al
    The small molecule Inauhzin possesses a dual targeting ability, and activates p53 by targeting two enzymes—SIRT1 and IMP dehydrogenase 2 (IMPDH2)—which are highly expressed in human cancers.
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    1. Immunology

    CD28 expression is required after T cell priming for helper T cell responses and protective immunity to infection

    Michelle A Linterman et al
    The co-stimulatory molecule CD28 is required after T cell priming for helper T cell polarization in response to an infection.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Measurement of average decoding rates of the 61 sense codons in vivo

    Justin Gardin et al
    The translation rates of each yeast codon have been measured in both the A and P sites of the ribosome.
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    1. Genes and Chromosomes
    2. Immunology

    Zinc finger protein Zfp335 is required for the formation of the naïve T cell compartment

    Brenda Y Han et al
    A novel zinc finger transcription factor regulates expression of multiple genes in late stage thymocytes and recent thymic emigrants to promote formation of the naïve T cell compartment.
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    1. Cell Biology

    Adiponectin is essential for lipid homeostasis and survival under insulin deficiency and promotes β-cell regeneration

    Risheng Ye et al
    Under insulinopenic conditions, the hormone adiponectin is essential for lipid uptake specifically in subcutaneous white adipose tissue, and is sufficient to ameliorate islet lipotoxicity.
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    1. Plant Biology

    The kinase LYK5 is a major chitin receptor in Arabidopsis and forms a chitin-induced complex with related kinase CERK1

    Yangrong Cao et al
    The chitin-triggered immune response is mediated by a LYK5 and CERK1 receptor complex in Arabidopsis.
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors regulate depression-like behavior and are critical for the rapid antidepressant actions of ketamine

    Oliver H Miller et al
    The rapid antidepressant actions of low dose ketamine occur through the direct relief of suppression of protein synthesis via antagonism of a subset of NMDA receptors containing the GluN2B subunit.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Neural mechanisms of economic commitment in the human medial prefrontal cortex

    Konstantinos Tsetsos et al
    A striking dissociation exists in the medial prefrontal cortex, with different brain regions responding to value when commitments are deferred to the future and when prospects are judged to be undesirable.
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    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Favipiravir elicits antiviral mutagenesis during virus replication in vivo

    Armando Arias et al
    Favipiravir, a novel nucleoside analogue, can clear a persistent norovirus infection in vivo through lethal mutagenesis.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Neurotrophin-3 regulates ribbon synapse density in the cochlea and induces synapse regeneration after acoustic trauma

    Guoqiang Wan et al
    Overexpression of the growth factor neurotrophin-3 helps to repair noise-induced damage in the mouse inner ear by promoting the regeneration of damaged synapses.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Non-linear developmental trajectory of electrical phenotype in rat substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons

    Martial A Dufour et al
    The development of the electrical phenotype of neurons can be precisely quantified and dissected using a combination of multi-variate statistical analyses and a systematic electrophysiological characterization of electrical properties.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Phase transitions of multivalent proteins can promote clustering of membrane receptors

    Sudeep Banjade, Michael K Rosen
    A new and general mechanism describes the organization of membrane proteins and their cytoplasmic ligands into micrometer-scale clusters, based on polymerization and concomitant phase separation of multivalent proteins.
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    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Immunology

    Female resistance to pneumonia identifies lung macrophage nitric oxide synthase-3 as a therapeutic target

    Zhiping Yang et al
    Activation of lung macrophage nitric oxide synthase-3 improves both bacterial clearance and outcome in primary and secondary pneumonia models.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    A host beetle pheromone regulates development and behavior in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus

    Jessica K Cinkornpumin et al
    A lipid-binding protein mediates both attraction and hypersensitivity to a beetle sex pheromone in a specific type of nematode-insect relationship known as necromeny.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Oscillatory phase separation in giant lipid vesicles induced by transmembrane osmotic differentials

    Kamila Oglęcka et al
    Spontaneous osmoregulation in giant phospholipid vesicles, which is characterized by oscillations in vesicle size and membrane tension, couples to the compositional degrees of freedom at the membrane surface to produce oscillations in domain texture and induce isothermal phase change.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Early intrinsic hyperexcitability does not contribute to motoneuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Félix Leroy et al
    Contrary to a long-standing hypothesis, the neuronal death that leads to muscle wastage in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis does not result from overactivity of those neurons during development.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Establishment of regions of genomic activity during the Drosophila maternal to zygotic transition

    Xiao-Yong Li et al
    Drosophila melanogaster embryos undergo a dramatic genomic transformation in the hour preceding gastrulation, as thousands of promoters and regulatory regions become biochemically distinct before they become active.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    A combined quantitative mass spectrometry and electron microscopy analysis of ribosomal 30S subunit assembly in E. coli

    Dipali G Sashital et al
    Comprehensive structural and compositional characterization of the in vivo 30S ribosomal assembly landscape reveals parallel pathways for 3′-domain formation and a previously unknown role for the assembly factor RimP.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Semaphorin 5A inhibits synaptogenesis in early postnatal- and adult-born hippocampal dentate granule cells

    Yuntao Duan et al
    Mice that lack the autism susceptibility gene Semaphorin 5A show excess excitatory synapse formation in dentate granule neurons and also altered social behavior, adding to evidence that a surplus of synapses contributes to the behavioral changes observed in autism spectrum disorders.
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    1. Cell Biology

    Counteracting suppression of CFTR and voltage-gated K+ channels by a bacterial pathogenic factor with the natural product tannic acid

    Yajamana Ramu et al
    Tannic acid acts as an ‘antidote’ against the negative effects of a bacterial enzyme, which can both aggravate cystic fibrosis and enable the anthrax bacteria to evade the immune responses elicited by a typical live vaccine.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Neuroscience

    Mitochondrial fusion but not fission regulates larval growth and synaptic development through steroid hormone production

    Hector Sandoval et al
    The dual role of Drosophila Mitofusin in steroid hormone production and cholesterol ester storage, which is evolutionary conserved by the combined expression of the two mammalian Mitofusins, ensures proper synaptic development.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Ancestral resurrection reveals evolutionary mechanisms of kinase plasticity

    Conor J Howard et al
    Reconstructing ancestral enzymes has revealed that a switch in kinase substrate preference evolved via an expanded specificity intermediate that is tolerated in vivo, thus providing a path for kinase diversification.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Synaptic organization of the Drosophila antennal lobe and its regulation by the Teneurins

    Timothy J Mosca, Liqun Luo
    A comprehensive synapse-level analysis of a fly central-brain region has led to the identification of molecules that are necessary for mediating the normal density of connections.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A structural mechanism for bacterial autotransporter glycosylation by a dodecameric heptosyltransferase family

    Qing Yao et al
    Protein heptosyltransferases modify a group of bacterial autotransporters for virulence function and employ a novel structural mechanism for the processive hyperglycosylation of the autotransporter.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Immunology

    The basic leucine zipper transcription factor NFIL3 directs the development of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor

    Xiaofei Yu et al
    The transcription factor NFIL3 is essential for the development of a committed bone marrow precursor that gives rise to all known innate lymphoid cell lineages in mice.
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    1. Cell Biology

    The membrane-associated proteins FCHo and SGIP are allosteric activators of the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex

    Gunther Hollopeter et al
    Endocytosis is triggered by membrane-associated proteins that transform the clathrin adaptor into an active complex.
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    1. Plant Biology

    Dynamic F-actin movement is essential for fertilization in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Tomokazu Kawashima et al
    The movement of F-actin filaments, which is regulated by actin-myosin interactions together with a female gamete-specific Rho-GTPase, enables migration of the Arabidopsis sperm cell nucleus towards the female nucleus; which might account for the loss of centrosomes in flowering plants.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    A clathrin coat assembly role for the muniscin protein central linker revealed by TALEN-mediated gene editing

    Perunthottathu K Umasankar et al
    The muniscin protein FCHO1 interacts with, and activates, the adapter protein-2 complex (AP-2) to promote the assembly of clathrin-coated vesicles.
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    1. Plant Biology

    Irreversible fate commitment in the Arabidopsis stomatal lineage requires a FAMA and RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED module

    Juliana L Matos et al
    An adult stem-cell lineage terminally differentiates via recruitment of the RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED protein by a lineage specific transcription factor.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Structure of catalase determined by MicroED

    Brent L Nannenga et al
    Building on previous work (Shi et al., 2013), we have used MicroED to determine the structure of catalase at 3.2 Å resolution from a single crystal.
    Research Advance
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    The rosetteless gene controls development in the choanoflagellate S. rosetta

    Tera C Levin et al
    The establishment of forward genetics in S. rosetta reveals the first gene known to be required for choanoflagellate multicellular development.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Crystal structure of PfRh5, an essential P. falciparum ligand for invasion of human erythrocytes

    Lin Chen et al
    The crystal structure of a PfRh family protein from a malaria parasite has been solved and shows that PfRh5-which the parasite uses to invade human red blood cells-has a novel protein fold.
    Short Report
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Flattop regulates basal body docking and positioning in mono- and multiciliated cells

    Moritz Gegg et al
    In cell types that acquire planar cell polarity, the protein Flattop regulates basal body docking and positioning.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Early patterning and specification of cardiac progenitors in gastrulating mesoderm

    W Patrick Devine et al
    Multipotent cardiac precursors within a population of mesoderm are rapidly fated to specific anatomic locations in the developing mouse heart.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Phosphatidic acid modulation of Kv channel voltage sensor function

    Richard K Hite et al
    Phosphatidic acid influences the gating of voltage-gated K+ channels through a non-specific surface charge mechanism and through a specific interaction between a voltage sensor arginine and the primary phosphate head group on the cytoplasmic membrane leaflet.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Neuroscience

    The Drosophila Sp8 transcription factor Buttonhead prevents premature differentiation of intermediate neural progenitors

    Yonggang Xie et al
    The Drosophila equivalent of the human transcription factor Sp8 acts to ensure that neural progenitor cells undergo an appropriate number of cell divisions, thereby helping to regulate brain development and guard against tumor formation.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Trithorax maintains the functional heterogeneity of neural stem cells through the transcription factor Buttonhead

    Hideyuki Komori et al
    The Drosophila equivalent of the human protein Mixed Lineage Leukemia 1n enables neural stem cells to generate neural progenitors through the fly equivalent of the human transcription factor Sp8, thereby contributing to an increased number and diversity of cell types during brain development.
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    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Regulation of food intake by mechanosensory ion channels in enteric neurons

    William H Olds, Tian Xu
    Manipulating the activity of ‘stretch-sensitive’ ion channels in neurons innervating the digestive system of fruit flies has dramatic effects on food intake, suggesting that these ion channels could be targets for drugs to help tackle obesity.
    Short Report
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    TORC2-dependent protein kinase Ypk1 phosphorylates ceramide synthase to stimulate synthesis of complex sphingolipids

    Alexander Muir et al
    TORC2-Ypk1 signaling upregulates flux through the sphingolipid pathway not only by increasing the supply of long-chain base precursors, but also by increasing their use in synthesizing complex sphingolipids.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    B4GAT1 is the priming enzyme for the LARGE-dependent functional glycosylation of α-dystroglycan

    Jeremy L Praissman et al
    The correct enzymatic activity of a previously misnamed enzyme is defined, placing the enzyme upstream of LARGE in building functional O-mannose structures on α-dystroglycan that are disrupted in multiple forms of congenital muscular dystrophy.
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    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Multi-species, multi-transcription factor binding highlights conserved control of tissue-specific biological pathways

    Benoit Ballester et al
    Combinatorial transcription factor binding shared by multiple species enriches for essential biological pathways and coincides with disease-causing regulatory DNA mutations.
    Research Article
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    The glucuronyltransferase B4GAT1 is required for initiation of LARGE-mediated α-dystroglycan functional glycosylation

    Tobias Willer et al
    Post-phosphoryl modification of α-dystroglycan requires the glucuronyltransferase B4GAT1; this enzyme synthesizes the acceptor glycan that serves as a primer for the glycosyltransferase LARGE to synthesize the laminin-binding glycan.
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    1. Ecology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Adaptability of non-genetic diversity in bacterial chemotaxis

    Nicholas W Frankel et al
    An experimentally constrained model shows that Escherichia coli faces fitness trade-offs in chemotaxis behaviors, and that adaptation of phenotypic diversity through altered gene regulation permits populations to resolve these trade-offs.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Neuroscience

    Delivery of circulating lipoproteins to specific neurons in the Drosophila brain regulates systemic insulin signaling

    Marko Brankatschk et al
    Yeast specific lipids promote the transport of lipid transfer protein (LTP) across the blood brain barrier to the neurons that regulate systemic insulin signaling.
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