January 2017

Research articles

    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct mechanisms mediate speed-accuracy adjustments in cortico-subthalamic networks

    Damian M Herz et al.
    Dynamic changes in activity and connectivity of the human subthalamic nucleus reflect whether a decision will be made in haste or with caution.
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    1. Genes and Chromosomes
    2. Neuroscience

    The LIM protein complex establishes a retinal circuitry of visual adaptation by regulating Pax6 α-enhancer activity

    Yeha Kim et al.
    Regulation of Pax6 expression through the α-enhancer fine-tunes amacrine cell subtype number, and consequently, the visual output of the retina.
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    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Operon mRNAs are organized into ORF-centric structures that predict translation efficiency

    David H Burkhardt et al.
    Operonic mRNAs in bacteria are comprised of ORF (open reading frame)-wide units of secondary structure, which are intrinsically distinct between adjacent ORFs and encode a rough blueprint for ORF-specific translation efficiency.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Oxytocin improves behavioral and electrophysiological deficits in a novel Shank3-deficient rat

    Hala Harony-Nicolas et al.
    The production, validation and study of a novel rat model for Phelan McDermid Syndrome shows an ameliorative effect of oxytocin on both social and attentional deficits.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    An aging-independent replicative lifespan in a symmetrically dividing eukaryote

    Eric C Spivey et al.
    A high throughput, full lifespan microscopic analysis reveals that fission yeast does not age but has a finite replicative lifespan.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Pharmacological targeting of the transcription factor SOX18 delays breast cancer in mice

    Jeroen Overman et al.
    A novel molecular strategy to block transcription factor activity using small molecule interference of multiple protein-protein interactions is reported.
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    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Matrix-regulated integrin αvβ5 maintains α5β1-dependent desmoplastic traits prognostic of neoplastic recurrence

    Janusz Franco-Barraza et al.
    Stromal cell levels and localization of active α5β1-integrin are regulated by desmoplastic extracellular matrix control of αvβ5-integrin signaling, and predict clinical outcomes for pancreatic and renal cancer patients.
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    1. Ecology

    Habitat and social factors shape individual decisions and emergent group structure during baboon collective movement

    Ariana Strandburg-Peshkin et al.
    For baboons on the move, habitat features across multiple spatial scales combine with social interactions to impact the movements of individuals, ultimately shaping the structure of the whole group.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    DNA methylation and gene expression changes derived from assisted reproductive technologies can be decreased by reproductive fluids

    Sebastian Canovas et al.
    Reproductive fluids help the correct establishment of some epigenetic marks and gene expression in preimplantation pig embryos.
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    1. Human Biology and Medicine

    Modeling susceptibility to drug-induced long QT with a panel of subject-specific induced pluripotent stem cells

    Francesca Stillitano et al.
    A genetically diverse panel of subject-specific induced pluripotent stem cells models the in vitro susceptibility of cardiac cells to develop a cardiotoxic drug response.
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Ablation of SNX6 leads to defects in synaptic function of CA1 pyramidal neurons and spatial memory

    Yang Niu et al.
    SNX6 regulates the distribution of a protein called Homer1b/c to distal dendrites, enabling the latter to stabilize the synapses and thereby support memory formation.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Neuroscience

    Pathogenic PS1 phosphorylation at Ser367

    Masato Maesako et al.
    PS1 phosphorylation at Ser367 is the potential hyperactivity-driven culprit of pathogenic change in PS1 conformation in vitro and in vivo.
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    1. Neuroscience

    The paranodal cytoskeleton clusters Na+ channels at nodes of Ranvier

    Veronique Amor et al.
    Single and double-knockout mouse models for proteins associated with nodes of Ranvier reveal that a paranodal, spectrin-based lateral diffusion barrier is sufficient to cluster Na+ channels at nodes of Ranvier.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Direct measurement of TRPV4 and PIEZO1 activity reveals multiple mechanotransduction pathways in chondrocytes

    M Rocio Servin-Vences et al.
    The application of different types of mechanical stimuli to chondrocytes, either by stretching the membrane or deflecting cell-substrate contacts, reveals that there are distinct but overlapping mechanoelectrical transduction pathways in these cells.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Neuroscience

    Adult-born neurons modify excitatory synaptic transmission to existing neurons

    Elena W Adlaf et al.
    The formation of new neurons in the adult dentate gyrus causes a proportion of cortical neurons to transfer their existing connections to the newborn cells.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Stimulus relevance modulates contrast adaptation in visual cortex

    Andreas J Keller et al.
    Cortex dynamically regulates the flow of sensory information by suppressing responses of non-relevant stimuli through mechanisms of adaptation, while boosting sensory responses that are behaviorally important.
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    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after macrophage cell death leads to serial killing of host cells

    Deeqa Mahamed et al.
    The rapid killing of macrophages by Mycobacterium tuberculosis aggregates, and the subsequent proliferation of the bacteria inside the dead cell, leads to a cell death cascade and explains the coupling of necrosis and pathogen growth observed in active disease.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Node of Ranvier length as a potential regulator of myelinated axon conduction speed

    I Lorena Arancibia-Cárcamo et al.
    Node of Ranvier length is similar at successive nodes along single myelinated CNS axons, but differs between axons, and could potentially be tuned to adjust the conduction velocity of each axon.
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    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Selecting the most appropriate time points to profile in high-throughput studies

    Michael Kleyman et al.
    The Time Point Selection (or TPS) method is a general protocol for determining sampling rates for high throughout time series biological studies, that is efficient, cheap, scalable and works well for several different types of molecular data.
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    1. Neuroscience

    YAP/TAZ initiate and maintain Schwann cell myelination

    Matthew Grove et al.
    Yap and Taz regulate proliferation and differentiation of Schwann cells, driving radial sorting, myelination and myelin maintenance of peripheral nerves.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Frontal beta-theta network during REM sleep

    Sujith Vijayan et al.
    Two regions of the frontal lobe – the anterior cingulate cortex and, unexpectedly, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex – show coordinated rhythmic activity during REM sleep.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    The invariant cleavage pattern displayed by ascidian embryos depends on spindle positioning along the cell's longest axis in the apical plane and relies on asynchronous cell divisions

    Rémi Dumollard et al.
    Cell cycle asynchrony regulates apical cell shape to drive cell division orientation in the apical plane.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Mapping cell type-specific transcriptional enhancers using high affinity, lineage-specific Ep300 bioChIP-seq

    Pingzhu Zhou et al.
    A method for measuring p300 chromatin occupancy in specific lineages of mouse tissues was used to map endothelial enhancers and to identify previously unrecognized angiogenesis-related sequence motifs.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    A general method for determining secondary active transporter substrate stoichiometry

    Gabriel A Fitzgerald et al.
    A method for determining how many ions are required to drive transport in an electrogenic secondary active transporter will help understand the mechanisms of bacterial transporters whose structures have been solved.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    Extensive cargo identification reveals distinct biological roles of the 12 importin pathways

    Makoto Kimura et al.
    Transport-based high-throughput identification of cargo proteins specific to all 12 human importin-β family nuclear import receptors revealed biological processes that the cargo cohorts of each receptor are involved in.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Direct assessment of substrate binding to the Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporter LeuT by solid state NMR

    Simon Erlendsson et al.
    Solid state NMR is unable to detect any association of substrate to the second binding site, S2, in the extracellular vestibule of the Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporter LeuT.
    Short Report
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    1. Neuroscience

    Dyslexics’ faster decay of implicit memory for sounds and words is manifested in their shorter neural adaptation

    Sagi Jaffe-Dax et al.
    Implicit memory traces for recently encountered perceptual stimuli, including words, decay more quickly in people with dyslexia.
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Motility precedes egress of malaria parasites from oocysts

    Dennis Klug, Friedrich Frischknecht
    A surface protein triggers intra-oocyst motility of Plasmodium sporozoites to ensure parasite egress from oocysts.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Sexually dimorphic control of gene expression in sensory neurons regulates decision-making behavior in C. elegans

    Zoë A Hilbert, Dennis H Kim
    A sexually dimorphic transcriptional switch in sensory neurons integrates information about microbial environment and nutritional state to regulate exploratory behavior in C. elegans..
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    1. Neuroscience

    Multivariate cross-frequency coupling via generalized eigendecomposition

    Michael X Cohen
    A novel methodological framework for cross-frequency coupling and spike-field coherence in multichannel (LFP, EEG, MEG) electrophysiology data reveals new manifestations of coupling dynamics.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Controlling contractile instabilities in the actomyosin cortex

    Masatoshi Nishikawa et al.
    Combining quantitative biological experiment and physical description of actomyosin cortex reveals a contractile instability in the cortex of C. elegans embryo, and its biochemical control in order to robustly drive morphogenetic events.
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    1. Ecology
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Novel adverse outcome pathways revealed by chemical genetics in a developing marine fish

    Elin Sørhus et al.
    Global gene expression analysis unravels the underlying mechanisms for distinct crude oil induced defects in Atlantic haddock eggs and larvae.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Coincident postsynaptic activity gates presynaptic dopamine release to induce plasticity in Drosophila mushroom bodies

    Kohei Ueno et al.
    Presynaptic dopamine release is restricted to postsynaptic targets that have been coincidently activated.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Structure of the active form of human origin recognition complex and its ATPase motor module

    Ante Tocilj et al.
    The human Origin Replication Complex is shaped as a shallow corkscrew in a classic AAA+ organization reminiscent of clamp loader complexes with highly controlled ATPase activity as exemplified by Meier-Gorlin syndrome mutations.
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    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Layer-specific chromatin accessibility landscapes reveal regulatory networks in adult mouse visual cortex

    Lucas T Gray et al.
    ATAC-seq, transcriptomics, and transcription factor motif searches collaborate to build a network that regulates gene expression in different cortical layers.
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology

    PKCθ links proximal T cell and Notch signaling through localized regulation of the actin cytoskeleton

    Graham J Britton et al.
    T cell receptor and Notch signaling pathways are linked via a novel mechanism involving modulation of the cytoskeleton.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Activity-dependent regulation of T-type calcium channels by submembrane calcium ions

    Magali Cazade et al.
    The feedback inhibition of T-type calcium channels by intracellular calcium provides new avenues to better decipher the roles of these low-voltage-activated channels in the fine control of calcium signaling events in physiology and pathophysiology.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Using the Volta phase plate with defocus for cryo-EM single particle analysis

    Radostin Danev et al.
    Building on previous work in cryo-electron microscopy (Entchev et al, 2015), it shown that a combination of the Volta phase plate and a small amount of defocus can simplify the experimental set-up, increase the data acquisition rate and improve resolution.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Concerted regulation of ISWI by an autoinhibitory domain and the H4 N-terminal tail

    Johanna Ludwigsen et al.
    The N-terminal domain of the chromatin remodeler ISWI contains previously uncharacterized conserved motifs that maintain structure, prevent ATP hydrolysis unless nucleosomes are bound, and confer H4-tail sensitivity without directly competing with the H4 tail.
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    1. Cancer Biology

    Replication Study: BET bromodomain inhibition as a therapeutic strategy to target c-Myc

    Fraser Aird et al.
    Editors' Summary: This Replication Study has reproduced important parts of the original paper.
    Replication Study
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    1. Cancer Biology

    Replication Study: Coadministration of a tumor-penetrating peptide enhances the efficacy of cancer drugs

    Christine Mantis et al.
    Editors' Summary: This Replication Study did not reproduce those experiments in the original paper that it attempted to reproduce.
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    1. Cancer Biology

    Replication Study: Discovery and preclinical validation of drug indications using compendia of public gene expression data

    Irawati Kandela et al.
    Editors' Summary: This Replication Study has reproduced important parts of the original paper.
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    1. Cancer Biology

    Replication Study: Melanoma genome sequencing reveals frequent PREX2 mutations

    Stephen K Horrigan et al.
    Editors' Summary: The results in this Replication Study could not be interpreted.
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    1. Neuroscience

    What the success of brain imaging implies about the neural code

    Olivia Guest, Bradley C Love
    For brain imaging to be useful despite its limitations in measuring neural activity, the neural code must be smooth both in a traditional sense and functionally.
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    1. Cancer Biology

    Replication Study: The CD47-signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa) interaction is a therapeutic target for human solid tumors

    Stephen K Horrigan, Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology
    Editors' Summary: The results in this Replication Study could not be interpreted.
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    1. Immunology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    RAGE deficiency predisposes mice to virus-induced paucigranulocytic asthma

    Jaisy Arikkatt et al.
    HMGB1 drives the development of paucigranulocytic asthma in RAGE deficient mice.
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Genetic defects in β-spectrin and tau sensitize C. elegans axons to movement-induced damage via torque-tension coupling

    Michael Krieg et al.
    A conceptual framework and physical model shows how actin-spectrin networks and microtubule bundles can protect axons from mechanical stress.
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    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora mimics olfactory cues of sex and food to lure its nematode prey

    Yen-Ping Hsueh et al.
    Genetic and behavior analyses show that Caenorhabditis nematodes are lured to the predator Arthrobotrys oligospora by olfactory mimicry of food and sex cues.
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    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Mitochondrial respiratory gene expression is suppressed in many cancers

    Ed Reznik et al.
    Building on previous work (Reznik et al., 2016), independent measurements of mitochondrial genome copy number and expression indicate that several solid tumor types suppress respiratory metabolism compared to normal tissue.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Length-dependent flagellar growth of Vibrio alginolyticus revealed by real time fluorescent imaging

    Meiting Chen et al.
    The length-dependent growth rate of bacterial flagellar filament is determined by the flagellin loading speed, loading strength and its diffusion process.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling directs cardiomyocyte movement toward the midline during heart tube assembly

    Joshua Bloomekatz et al.
    Studies in zebrafish and mouse implicate the PDGF signaling pathway in the communication between the endoderm and the myocardium that drives medial myocardial movement and thereby initiates cardiac morphogenesis.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Neuroscience

    Homeodomain protein Otp affects developmental neuropeptide switching in oxytocin neurons associated with a long-term effect on social behavior

    Einav Wircer et al.
    Experiments in zebrafish reveal a new role for a critical hypothalamic transcription factor, orthopedia, in controlling developmental neuropeptide balance in a discrete oxytocin-producing neuronal circuit whose disrupted development affects social behavior.
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    1. Neuroscience

    The RFamide receptor DMSR-1 regulates stress-induced sleep in C. elegans

    Michael J Iannacone et al.
    During sickness, sleep is induced by neuropeptides, which contain an amidated arginine-phenylalanine motif, acting in a neuroendocrine fashion on a G-protein coupled receptor called DMSR-1.
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    1. Ecology
    2. Plant Biology

    Present-day central African forest is a legacy of the 19th century human history

    Julie Morin-Rivat et al.
    The cessation of major anthropogenic disturbances since European colonization in the forests of central Africa leads to a canopy closing, and to the disappearance of certain light-demanding tree species.
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    MAPK signaling promotes axonal degeneration by speeding the turnover of the axonal maintenance factor NMNAT2

    Lauren J Walker et al.
    Genetic and biochemical analysis reveals that MAPK signaling promotes axon degeneration by modulating the turnover of axon-protective proteins.
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    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Autophagy inhibition overcomes multiple mechanisms of resistance to BRAF inhibition in brain tumors

    Jean M Mulcahy Levy et al.
    Pre-clinical and patient data show that inhibition of autophagy with an approved, inexpensive, well-tolerated drug can overcome resistance to BRAFV600E inhibition in multiple brain tumor subtypes with different resistance mechanisms.
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    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    TGF-β reduces DNA ds-break repair mechanisms to heighten genetic diversity and adaptability of CD44+/CD24− cancer cells

    Debjani Pal et al.
    Phenotypic diversity and cell state transition (i.e., acquisition of a CD44+/CD24- cell state or exposure to TGF-beta) can spur intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity and contribute to acquired resistance.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Vocal development in a Waddington landscape

    Yayoi Teramoto et al.
    An integrated landscape framework shows how the coordinated changes in vocal apparatus, muscles, nervous system, and social interaction together influence the trajectory of vocal development.
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    1. Cell Biology

    The fibronectin synergy site re-enforces cell adhesion and mediates a crosstalk between integrin classes

    Maria Benito-Jardón et al.
    The fibronectin synergy site is only required in vivo when forces exceed or αvβ3 integrin levels fall below certain thresholds.
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    1. Cell Biology

    Centriolar SAS-7 acts upstream of SPD-2 to regulate centriole assembly and pericentriolar material formation

    Kenji Sugioka et al.
    A genetic screen and live cell imaging show that a newly identified coiled-coil protein called SAS-7 is the earliest acting factor in centriole assembly yet identified in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Cryo-EM structure of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel illuminates mechanisms of assembly and gating

    Gregory M Martin et al.
    Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy reveals the first subnanometer structure of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, which provides insight into the structural mechanisms of channel assembly and gating.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Neuroscience

    Phenotypic outcomes in Mouse and Human Foxc1 dependent Dandy-Walker cerebellar malformation suggest shared mechanisms

    Parthiv Haldipur et al.
    Building on previous work (Haldipur et al., 2014), we show that many key mechanisms controlling cerebellar development are likely conserved between mouse and human, and validate our mouse model of Dandy-Walker malformation.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Transcription leads to pervasive replisome instability in bacteria

    Sarah M Mangiameli et al.
    Replication-transcription conflicts cause pervasive replisome instability.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Structural insights into the mechanism of the DEAH-box RNA helicase Prp43

    Marcel J Tauchert et al.
    The structural and functional analysis of the ATP-dependent RNA helicase Prp43 provides insights into the mechanisms of RNA binding and translocation, which could serve as paradigm for all DEAH-box proteins.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Framing of grid cells within and beyond navigation boundaries

    Francesco Savelli et al.
    Grid-cell maps can be aligned to both local and remote reference frames, suggesting that they provide a metric for space beyond the navigationally accessible boundaries of the local environment.
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Proliferation-independent regulation of organ size by Fgf/Notch signaling

    Agnė Kozlovskaja-Gumbrienė et al.
    Cell adhesion regulates organ size in the zebrafish lateral line system.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Reward-based training of recurrent neural networks for cognitive and value-based tasks

    H Francis Song et al.
    A two-part neural network models reward-based training and provides a unified framework in which to study diverse computations that can be compared to electrophysiological recordings from behaving animals.
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    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Ecology

    Nomadic-colonial life strategies enable paradoxical survival and growth despite habitat destruction

    Zong Xuan Tan, Kang Hao Cheong
    By modelling organisms that alternate between individual and colonial lifestyles, the well-known Parrondo's paradox can emerge in an ecological setting without the need for stochastic environmental variation.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    High throughput in vivo functional validation of candidate congenital heart disease genes in Drosophila

    Jun-yi Zhu et al.
    A high-throughput functional validation system for large numbers of candidate disease genes enables in vivo functional testing of specific gene variants.
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    1. Ecology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Flow environment and matrix structure interact to determine spatial competition in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    Carey D Nadell et al.
    The feedback between hydrodynamic flow conditions and biofilm spatial architecture drives competition in P. aeruginosa biofilms, and can explain variation in biofilm production observed among bacteria in natural environments.
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Impaired retrograde transport of axonal autophagosomes contributes to autophagic stress in Alzheimer’s disease neurons

    Prasad Tammineni et al.
    Amyloid-β oligomers associated with Alzheimer’s disease interact with dynein motors to impair retrograde transport of autophagic vesicles in neurons.
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    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    NADPH oxidase-mediated redox signaling promotes oxidative stress resistance and longevity through memo-1 in C. elegans

    Collin Yvès Ewald et al.
    Genetic analysis reveals NADPH oxidase generated reactive oxygen species as signals to re-establish cellular homeostasis during aging via activating a transcriptional response.
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Isoform-specific subcellular localization and function of protein kinase A identified by mosaic imaging of mouse brain

    Ronit Ilouz et al.
    High-resolution, large-scale immunohistochemical mouse brain images showing global views of different brain regions, as well as cellular and subcellular details, identified distinct localization of PKA RIβ and RIIβ regulatory subunits that reveal functional differences.
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    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Myogenic regulatory transcription factors regulate growth in rhabdomyosarcoma

    Inês M Tenente et al.
    MYF5 and MYOD regulate rhabdomyosaroma growth and tumor-propagating potential, acting more than as passive markers retained from the target cell-of-origin during transformation.
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    1. Genes and Chromosomes

    An efficient targeted nuclease strategy for high-resolution mapping of DNA binding sites

    Peter J Skene, Steven Henikoff
    CUT&RUN (Cleavage Under Targets & Release Using Nuclease) profiles antibody-targeted DNA-binding proteins in situ with high resolution and low background, providing a simple, robust and scalable alternative to chromatin immunoprecipitation.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Immunology

    Symbiont-induced odorant binding proteins mediate insect host hematopoiesis

    Joshua B Benoit et al.
    Insect symbiotic bacteria regulate expression of an odorant binding protein that mediates an evolutionarily conserved hematopoietic pathway crucial for host immune system development and function.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Transformation of spatiotemporal dynamics in the macaque vestibular system from otolith afferents to cortex

    Jean Laurens et al.
    The spatial and dynamic properties of self-motion signals are acquired at the first stage of otolith signal transformation, which is in the brainstem and cerebellum, and conserved across brainstem, cerebellar and cortical areas.
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    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Cell assemblies at multiple time scales with arbitrary lag constellations

    Eleonora Russo, Daniel Durstewitz
    A novel statistical algorithm for mining high-dimensional spike train (count) data for significant spatio-temporal patterns reveals new insights into task and brain area dependent functional organization of neural activity.
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    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    BRAFV600E cooperates with CDX2 inactivation to promote serrated colorectal tumorigenesis

    Naoya Sakamoto et al.
    Genetic analyses reveal how CDX2 and BRAF defects seen in serrated colorectal cancer (CRCs), a poor prognosis CRC subset, cooperate in tumorigenesis in humans and in a mouse cancer model.
    Research Article
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Embryonic origin of adult stem cells required for tissue homeostasis and regeneration

    Erin L Davies et al.
    Anarchic, cycling piwi-1+ embryonic cells gives rise to neoblasts, pluripotent stemcells required for development of all organ systems during S. mediterranea embryogenesis, as well as the maintenance andregeneration of tissues during adulthood.
    Research Article
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    1. Neuroscience

    Suppression of C9orf72 RNA repeat-induced neurotoxicity by the ALS-associated RNA-binding protein Zfp106

    Barbara Celona et al.
    Zfp106 functions as an RNA binding protein, binds directly to GGGGCC RNA repeats, is required in motor neurons to prevent ALS-like neurodegeneration in mice, and can suppress neurotoxicity in an established fly model of ALS.
    Short Report
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    A sequential multi-target Mps1 phosphorylation cascade promotes spindle checkpoint signaling

    Zhejian Ji et al.
    The spindle checkpoint kinase Mps1 sequentially phosphorylates multiple substrates to amplify checkpoint signals, making the checkpoint highly dependent on Mps1 function and directly responsive to kinetochore-microtubule attachment.
    Research Article
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    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A molecular portrait of maternal sepsis from Byzantine Troy

    Alison M Devault et al.
    Mineralized placental tissue from Late Byzantine Troy enables the detailed reconstruction of genomes of mixed bacterial species responsible for maternal sepsis in the ancient world.
    Short Report
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Genetic evidence that Nkx2.2 acts primarily downstream of Neurog3 in pancreatic endocrine lineage development

    Angela J Churchill et al.
    The regulation of beta cell induction requires combined hierarchical and combinatorial transcriptional networks.
    Research Article
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    1. Ecology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Metabolite exchange between microbiome members produces compounds that influence Drosophila behavior

    Caleb N Fischer et al.
    Interactions between fungal and bacterial microbiome members alter Drosophila melanogaster's chemical environment, affecting host behavior and survival.
    Research Article
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    1. Neuroscience

    Role of protein synthesis and DNA methylation in the consolidation and maintenance of long-term memory in Aplysia

    Kaycey Pearce et al.
    Behavioral and synaptic investigations of long-term memory in Aplysia reveal differing roles for DNA methylation, protein synthesis during training and protein synthesis shortly after training with respect to memory consolidation and maintenance.
    Research Article
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    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Characterisation of the opposing effects of G6PD deficiency on cerebral malaria and severe malarial anaemia

    Geraldine M Clarke et al.
    Increasing levels of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency are associated with decreasing risk of cerebral malaria, but with increased risk of severe malarial anaemia.
    Research Article
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Structure and function of the mycobacterial transcription initiation complex with the essential regulator RbpA

    Elizabeth A Hubin et al.
    The essential mycobacterial transcription factor RbpA interacts with promoter DNA and cooperates with another essential transcription factor, CarD, to stimulate the formation of an intermediate leading to the open promoter complex.
    Research Article
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Analyzing native membrane protein assembly in nanodiscs by combined non-covalent mass spectrometry and synthetic biology

    Erik Henrich et al.
    As the function of membrane proteins is often influenced by its membrane environment the presented combinatorial approach is of great value for the investigation of membrane protein complexes in natural or even manipulated lipid bilayers.
    Tools and Resources
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Genetic screen in Drosophila muscle identifies autophagy-mediated T-tubule remodeling and a Rab2 role in autophagy

    Naonobu Fujita et al.
    Analyses of a developmentally regulated Drosophila myofiber remodeling program provide insight into induced autophagy required for T-tubule membrane reorganization, and uncover a conserved Rab2 role in autophagosome-lysosome fusion.
    Research Article
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    Targeting of the Fun30 nucleosome remodeller by the Dpb11 scaffold facilitates cell cycle-regulated DNA end resection

    Susanne CS Bantele et al.
    Chromatin remodelling is a key bottleneck to DNA end resection, the first and committed step of homologous recombination.
    Research Article
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    1. Immunology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Dissection of the host-pathogen interaction in human tuberculosis using a bioengineered 3-dimensional model

    Liku B Tezera et al.
    The bridging of bioengineering and cell culture techniques provides a transformative platform to investigate human biology within a 3-dimensional extracellular matrix over prolonged periods with multiplex readouts.
    Tools and Resources
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    1. Neuroscience

    Feedforward motor information enhances somatosensory responses and sharpens angular tuning of rat S1 barrel cortex neurons

    Mohamed Khateb et al.
    Primary motor cortex afferents supra-linearly amplify the responses and sharpen angular tuning of neurons in the S1 barrel cortex.
    Research Article
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    CDK-regulated dimerization of M18BP1 on a Mis18 hexamer is necessary for CENP-A loading

    Dongqing Pan et al.
    The stoichiometry and mechanism of interactions of the Mis18 complex with M18BP1 was analysed to unveil the molecular basis of new CENP-A deposition during the G1 phase of the cell cycle.
    Research Article
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    1. Neuroscience

    Perisomatic GABAergic synapses of basket cells effectively control principal neuron activity in amygdala networks

    Judit M Veres et al.
    Basket cells expressing parvalbumin or cholecystokinin provide equally effective control of principal neuron activity via their perisomatic synapses in the basal amygdala.
    Research Article
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Structural and biochemical analyses of the DEAD-box ATPase Sub2 in association with THO or Yra1

    Yi Ren et al.
    Biochemical and structural analyses of a universal mRNP remodeling pathway suggest an ATPase-powered targeted deposition of export factors onto mRNP.
    Research Article
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology

    Glycolysis and glutaminolysis cooperatively control T cell function by limiting metabolite supply to N-glycosylation

    Lindsey Araujo et al.
    Metabolic switches between oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis plus glutaminolysis direct T cell function by altering the flux of glucose and glutamine to N-glycosylation.
    Research Article
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    1. Neuroscience

    An extended retinotopic map of mouse cortex

    Jun Zhuang et al.
    An expanded map of mouse cortex reveals the expansion of retinotopic organization into barrel and retrosplenial cortices.
    Research Article
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Cooperative and acute inhibition by multiple C-terminal motifs of L-type Ca2+ channels

    Nan Liu et al.
    C-terminus mediated inhibition is one emerging modality of intervention for L-type Ca2+ channels, which coordinate multiple motifs to acutely tune Ca2+ current and Ca2+ influx down to the lower limits preset by end-stage Ca2+-dependent inactivation.
    Research Article
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    1. Neuroscience

    Opposite initialization to novel cues in dopamine signaling in ventral and posterior striatum in mice

    William Menegas et al.
    Dopamine novelty signals are localized in the posterior tail of the striatum along with general salience signals, while dopamine in the ventral striatum reliably encodes reward prediction error.
    Research Article
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    1. Neuroscience

    Excitation and inhibition in anterior cingulate predict use of past experiences

    Jacqueline Scholl et al.
    Neurotransmitter balance in a region in frontal cortex controls how much people use information they have learnt to guide their behaviour.
    Short Report
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    1. Neuroscience

    APP modulates KCC2 expression and function in hippocampal GABAergic inhibition

    Ming Chen et al.
    APP interacts with KCC2 to limit the latter from tyrosine-phosphorylation and ubiquitination and thus subsequent degradation, revealing a novel molecular pathway in which APP regulates GABAergic signaling and thus inhibition in the hippocampus.
    Research Article
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Distribution of neurosensory progenitor pools during inner ear morphogenesis unveiled by cell lineage reconstruction

    Sylvia Dyballa et al.
    The first dynamic map of early neuronal and sensory progenitors in the whole otic vesicle reveals how progenitor domains remodel upon morphogenesis.
    Research Article
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Concerted action of the MutLβ heterodimer and Mer3 helicase regulates the global extent of meiotic gene conversion

    Yann Duroc et al.
    Meiotic cells employ a specific pathway to limit the amount of gene conversion occuring at recombination sites.
    Research Article
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Exploring conformational equilibria of a heterodimeric ABC transporter

    M Hadi Timachi et al.
    A heterodimeric exporter exhibits conformational equilibria in the presence of nucleotides, suggesting a unified mechanistic model for the conformational cycle of ABC exporters.
    Research Article
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    1. Neuroscience

    CREB overexpression in dorsal CA1 ameliorates long-term memory deficits in aged rats

    Xiao-Wen Yu et al.
    Behavioral, biochemical, and biophysical analyses show that age-related memory deficits can be rescued by directly overexpressing wild-type CREB.
    Research Article
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    1. Genes and Chromosomes
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Differential methylation between ethnic sub-groups reflects the effect of genetic ancestry and environmental exposures

    Joshua M Galanter et al.
    An epigenome-wide study shows that ethnic self-identification and genetically determined ancestry both make important independent contributions to DNA methylation levels.
    Research Article
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    The synaptonemal complex has liquid crystalline properties and spatially regulates meiotic recombination factors

    Ofer Rog et al.
    Formation of a phase-separated interface between homologous chromosomes during meiosis enables regulatory signals to spread in cis over long distances, illuminating the longstanding mystery of crossover interference.
    Research Article
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    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Streptomyces exploration is triggered by fungal interactions and volatile signals

    Stephanie E Jones et al.
    Exploratory growth is a newly discovered mode of Streptomyces growth that it is stimulated by fungi, is pH responsive, and can be communicated to other – physically separated – streptomycetes through airborne compounds.
    Research Article
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Atomic structures of fibrillar segments of hIAPP suggest tightly mated β-sheets are important for cytotoxicity

    Pascal Krotee et al.
    Atomic structures of hIAPP fibrillar segments, determined using the cryo electron microscopy method MicroED, reveal that strong, stable intermolecular interactions are important features of cytotoxic amyloid proteins.
    Research Article
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Magazine

    1. Human Biology and Medicine

    Stem Cells: Put to the test

    Marites T Woon, Timothy J Kamp
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Bacteria: Exploring new horizons

    Vineetha M Zacharia, Matthew F Traxler